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Africa General Service Medal

Conflict
 
General Service In Africa 1902 - 1956.
 
Further relevant historical context can be found at the foot of this entry.
 
History
 
The Africa General Service Medal was a British Empire campaign medal presented to those who participated in operations in Africa for which no other separate medal was intended. The medal was instituted in 1902 and was awarded for minor campaigns in tropical Africa.
 
This medal replaced the East and West Africa Medal and remained in use for 54 years. Silver medals went to combatants while some transport personnel received bronze medals in Northern Nigeria and Somaliland between 1902 and 1908.
 
The last issue of this medal was made for the Mau Mau uprising in Kenya in 1956.
 
The medal is never seen without a clasp and some are very rare, most being granted to local forces like the King's African Rifles.
 
Description
 
The medal is circular, 36mm in diameter and struck in either silver or bronze. The obverse of this medal bears the effigy of the reigning monarch at the time that the medal was issued and a corresponding inscription. This is summarised in the table below:-
 
Monarch
Issue & Type
Obverse Style & Inscription
Dates
Edward VII
1
EVII 1
In Uniform
EDWARDVS VII REX IMPERATOR
1902 - 1910
George V
2
GV 1
In Field Marshals Uniform
GEORGIVS v BRITT: OMN: REX ET IND: IMP:
1910  - 1936
Elizabeth II
3
E:R 1
With Un-crowned Head
ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRATIA. REGINA. F:D:
1952 - 1956
 
The reverse depicts the standing figure Britannia with the British lion next to her and the inscription; ‘AFRICA’.
 
The ribbon suspender is of the plain straight and swivelling style riveted to the medal.
 
The recipient's details can be found on the medal's rim generally in impressed san serifs to military units, engraved in upright or sloping serif capitals to officers.
 
Naval recipients are usually found impressed in serif capitals and African recipients are usually found in impressed locally by hand or in uneven serif capitals.
 
Ribbon
 
Africa General Service Medal BAR.svg
 
The ribbon is 32mm wide and is yellow in colour with two narrow green stripes towards the centre and a black stripe along either edge.
 
Bars/Clasps
 
This medal was issued with the following clasps:-
 
B.C.A. 1899-1900
Awarded for service in British Central Africa between August 1899 and December 1900.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Operations against Nkwamba under Captain F.B. Pearce, West Yorkshire Regiment, between August and October 1899; Tombowe was the base for the expedition.
II). Operations in north-eastern Rhodesia against the Kazembe under Captain E.C. Margeson, South Wales Borderers and directed by Commissioner A. Sharpe CB, between September and November 1899. R Codrington, Administrator of North-eastern Rhodesia was also present.
III). Operations in central Ango-niland against Kalulu under Captain R. Bright, East Kent Regiment, December 1900.
N. Nigeria
Awarded for service in Northern Nigeria between July 1900 and September 1901.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Operations against the forces of the Bida and Kontagora under Major W.H. O’Neill, Royal Artillery, between July and December 1900; or under Major (local Colonel) G.V. Kemball, Royal Artillery, 19 January to 17 February 1901.
II). Expedition against the Chief of Tawari under Major (temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) A.W.G.L. Cole, Royal Welsh Fusiliers, between 6-8 December 1900.
III). Operations against the Emir of Yola under Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel (local Colonel) T.L.N. Morland, King’s Royal Rifle Corps, between August and September 1901.
Uganda 1900
Awarded for service in the Nandi country, Uganda, between 3 July and October 1900 under Lieutenant Colonel J.T. Evatt DSO, Indian Staff Corps.
Jubaland
(Both silver and bronze variations)
Awarded for service under the command of Colonel T.P.B. Teran, Manchester Regiment, against the Ogaden Somalis, including military forces at Kismayu, and to officers and men of the Royal Navy and Royal Navy and Royal Marines who landed to supplement the garrison at Kismayu, between 16 November 1900 and 30 April 1901.
Both silver and bronze were awarded.
Gambia
Awarded for service in operations in Gambia between January and March 1901, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel H.E.J. Brake CB, DSO, Royal Artillery.
Bathurst was the base for these operations. The medals awarded to naval recipients were limited to a few officers, petty officers and seamen who were under fire in the action at Dumbutu 11 January 1901.
Those engaged in patrolling rivers or transporting troops were not eligible.
S. Nigeria
Awarded for service in operations in Southern Nigeria between March and May 1901.
This clasp was issued to those who took part in the Ishan and Ulia expeditions under Captain (Local Major) W.C.G. Heneker, Connaught Rangers.
Lango 1901
Awarded for service during the punitive expedition under the command of Major C. Delme-Radcliffe, Connaught Rangers, against the Lango people and Sudanese mutineers between 24 April and 24 August 1901.
Somaliland 1901
(Both silver and bronze variations)
Awarded for service in Somaliland between 22 May and 30 July 1901.
This clasp was issued to those who took part in the first expedition against Muhammed bin Abdullah commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel E.J.E. Swayne, Indian Staff Corps.
Muhammed bin Abdullah first began to wage war against the British in 1899.
A number of bronze medals with this clasp were issued.
Aro 1901-1902
Awarded for service in Aro under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel A.F. Montanaro, Royal Garrison Artillery between 15 November 1901 and 23 March 1902.
It was issued to 14 British military officers and 1830 native soldiers, 11 District Commissioners and officers of the Niger Police who formed the Aro Expeditionary Force in addition to naval personnel who supported operations.
Somaliland 1902-04
(Both silver and bronze variations)
Awarded for service in Somaliland between 18 January 1902 and 11 May 1904, against Muhammed bin Abdullah. The qualifying service for this award on land was as follows:-
I). Expedition under Colonel E.J.E. Swayne, Indian Staff Corps between 8 February and 17 October 1902.
II). Expedition under Brigadier-General W.H. Manning between 4 November 1902 and 3 July 1903.
III). Expedition under Major-General Sir E.E. Egerton KCB, DSO between 26 October 1903 and 25 April 1904.
The qualifying service for this award on naval operations was as follows:-
I). Engaged in Somaliland between 18 January 1902 and 11 May 1904.
II). Those who accompanied Colonel A.N. Rochfort CB, CMG with the Abyssinian forces.
III). All those serving on HM ships employed in connection with the operations within the limits of a sphere comprising the Somaliland coast from Berbera to Mogadishu and including Aden, but excluding those serving in torpedo boats.
Five Victoria Crosses awarded for the period covered by this clasp.
Both silver and bronze were awarded.
N. Nigeria 1902
Awarded for service in Northern Nigeria between 1 February and 16 May and 15 June and 30 November 1902.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Members of an expedition under Lieutenant Colonel T.L.N. Morland, Kings Royal Rifle Corps, to Bornu, between 1 February and 16 May 1902.
II). Members of the Kontagora Force, which operated between 12 and 20 February 1902.
III). Service under the command of Captain G.C. Merrick, Royal Artillery, at Arungu and on French convoy duty between 15 June and 30 November 1902.
Three Distinguished Conduct Medals were awarded for the Northern Nigeria operations 1902.
S. Nigeria 1902
Awarded for service in Southern Nigeria between 5 June and 30 December 1902. This clasp was not authorised until 1906.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Operations under the command of Captain P.K. Carre, Royal Warwickshire Regiment, in the Ngor country, July 1902.
II). Operations under the command of Captain A.J. Campbell DSO, 19 Hussars, in the Ebeku country, September 1902.
III). Operations under the command of Captain A.D.H. Grayson, Royal Artillery, in the Ikwe country, October 1902.
IV). Operations under the command of Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel W.C.G. Heneker DSO, Connaught Rangers, in the Ibeku Olokoro country between 26 October and 8 December 1902.
V). Operations under the command of Captain (Brevet-Major) I.G. Hogg DSO, 4 Hussars, in the Ibekwe country, October 1902.
VI). Operations under the command of Captain (Brevet-Major) W.J. Venour DSO, Royal Dublin Fusiliers, in the Nsit country, December 1902.
VII). Operation under the command of Captain (Brevet-Major) H.C. Moorhouse, Royal Artillery, in the Asaba hinterland, December 1902.
S. Nigeria 1902-03
Awarded for service in Southern Nigeria between 7 July 1902 and 8 June 1903.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Operations under the command of Colonel A.F. Montanaro CB, Royal Artillery, against the Uris and the people of Omonoha and Ebima between 7 July 1902 and 8 June 1903.
II). Operations under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel W.C.G. Heneker DSO, Connaught Rangers, against Chief Adukukaiku of Igarra and further operations in the Afikpo district between December 1902 and January 1903.
Two Distinguished Conduct Medals were awarded for this campaign.
East Africa 1902
Awarded for service in East Africa between 4 September and 25 October 1902 as a part of the Maruke Patrol under the command of Lieutenant F.W.O. Maycock DSO, Suffolk Regiment against the Kikuyu tribe.
N. Nigeria 1903
Awarded for service in Northern Nigeria between 29 January and 27 July 1903.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Members of an expedition in the Kano - Sokoto campaign, under the command of Brigadier-General G.V. Kemball and High Commissioner Brigadier General Sir F.J.D. Lugard DSO.
II). Service between Sokoto and Birmi between 15 April and 27 July 1903.
A Victoria Cross was awarded for this expedition.
S. Nigeria 1903
Awarded for service in Southern Nigeria between 4 February and 5 December 1903. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Operations under the command of Brevet-Colonel A.F. Montanaro CB, Royal Artillery, on the Nun River, between September and  October 1903.
II). Operations under the command of Brevet-Major A.M.N. Mackenzie, Royal Artillery, in the Eket district, between 16 and 25 September 1903.
III). Operations under the command of Brevet-Major A.M.N. Mackenzie, Royal Artillery, in the Mkpani country, between 1 and 5 December 1903.
In 1906 the qualifying service was extended to include the following:-
IV). Operations under the command of Captain H.H. Sproule, Indian Army, in the Ebegga country, February 1903.
V). Operations under the command of Captain E.L. Roddy, Cheshire Regiment, in Eket and the country west of Anan, March 1903.
N. Nigeria 1903-04
(Both silver and bronze variations)
Awarded for service in Northern Nigeria between 23 December 1903 and 12 March 1904, during the Bassa expedition against the Okpotos under Captain G.C. Merrick, Royal Artillery.
S. Nigeria 1903-04
Awarded for service in Southern Nigeria between 24 December 1903 and 15 January 1904 under the command of Brevet-Major I.G. Hogg DSO, 4 Hussars, during expeditions to the towns of Osea, Oriri and N’doto.
Jidballi
Awarded for service at the engagement at Jidballi, 10 January 1904, and to those who formed part of the baggage guard left behind under the command of Major W.B. Mullins, 27 Punjabis. A Victoria Cross was awarded for this action.
Those who received this clasp also received ‘Somaliland 1902-04’.
S. Nigeria 1904
Awarded for service in Southern Nigeria between 12 January and June 1904
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Operations under the command of Brevet-Colonel A.F. Montanaro CB, Royal Artillery, and Captain H.C. MacDonald, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, in the Northern Ibibio district between 12 January and 31 March 1904.
II). Operation under the command of Brevet-Major I.G. Hogg DSO, 4 Hussars, against the natives of the Asaba hinterland between 17 January and 25 April 1904.
III). Operations under the command of Brevet-Major I.G. Hogg DSO, 4 Hussars, in the Kwale country between 21 March and 24 April 1904.
IV). Operations under the command of Brevet-Major H.M. Trenchard, Royal Scots Fusiliers, in the Owerri district on the right bank of the Imo River, March 1904.
V). Operations under the command of Captain H.H. Sproule, Indian Army, and Lieutenant R.D. Whigham, Lancashire Fusiliers, at Obokum and the patrol under Brevet Major H.M. Trenchard, Royal Scots Fusiliers between 3 February and 3 June 1904.
Two Distinguished Conduct Medals were given for Southern Nigeria 1904.
East Africa 1904
Awarded for service in East Africa during the Iraini patrol, between 13 February and 17 March 1904, under the command of Captain F.A. Dickinson, Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry.
N. Nigeria 1904
Awarded for service in Northern Nigeria between March and October 1904.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Operations under the command of Lieutenant S.B.B. Dyer DSO, 2 Life Guards, in the Dakka Kerri country, March 1904.
II). Operations under the command of Lieutenant (local Captain) P.M. Short, Gloucestershire Regiment, against the tribes who occupied the country north of Wase on the high road from the Benue to Bauchi between 25 March and 18 April 1904.
III). Operations under the command of Lieutenant I.G. Sewell, Royal Fusiliers, against the Kilba tribe north of the Yola, July 1904.
IV). Operations under the command of Captain G.C. Merrick DSO, Royal Artillery, against the people of Semolika, October 1904.
S. Nigeria 1904-05
Awarded for service in Southern Nigeria 1905 under the command of Brevet-Major H.M. Trenchard, Royal Scots Fusiliers, patrolling through the unsettled portion of the Ibibio and Kwa country between 15 November 1904 and 27 February.
S. Nigeria 1905-06
Awarded for service in southern Nigeria under the command of Brevet-Major H.M. Trenchard, Royal Scots Fusiliers and Captain G.T. Mair, Royal Field Artillery, who participated in the columns which concentrated at Bende and Oka and which took part in the Bende-Onitsha hinterland expedition.  
Kissi 1905
Awarded for service in the Kissi country under the command of Captain (local Major) C.E. Palmer, Royal Artillery, between 27 March and 28 June 1905
East Africa 1905
Awarded for service in East Africa between 31 May and 9 October 1905. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Expeditions, under the command of Captain and Brevet-Major L.R.H. Pope-Hennessy, DSO, Oxford Light Infantry, to Sotik between 31 May and 12 July 1905.
II). Expeditions under the command of Captain E.V. Jenkins DSO, Duke of Wellington’s Regiment, to Kisii between 1 September and 9 October 1905.
S. Nigeria 1905
Awarded for service in Southern Nigeria between 10 and 18 October 1905 in the Kwale district, under the command of Brevet-Major Maclear. Recipients of the clasp were not entitled to the ‘S. Nigeria 1905-06’ clasp.
Nandi 1905-06
Awarded for service in the Nandi country under Lieutenant-Colonel E.G. Harrison DSO, Reserve of Officers, Brevet-Major (temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) H.A. Walker, Royal Fusiliers, and Captain (temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) J.D. Mackay, Seaforth Highlanders between 18 October 1905 and 6 July 1906.
N. Nigeria 1906
Awarded for service in Northern Nigeria between 14 February and 24 April 1906. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Operations under the command of Lieutenant F.E. Blackwood, East Surrey Regiment, killed in action, and Captain R.H. Goodwin, Royal Garrison Artillery, against the Satiru rebels near Sokoto between 14 February and 11 March 1906.
II). Operations under the command of Colonel A.W.G. Lowry Cole DSO, Northern Nigeria Regiment, West Africa Frontier Force, against the Emir of Hadeija between 16 and 24 April 1906.
Six Distinguished Conduct Medals were awarded these operations.
West Africa 1906
Awarded for service in West Africa between 9 June 1906 and 17 February 1907. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Members of the punitive expedition under Captain W.C.E. Rudkin DSO, Royal Field Artillery, which operated in the Owa territory between 9 June and 3 August 1906.
II). To the reinforcements that reached his position
III). Two other small expeditions in the Chibuk country under Lieutenants P. Chapman DSO, Royal Fusiliers, and E.J. Wolseley, East Lancashire Regiment between 12 November 1906 and 17 February 1907.
Five Distinguished Conduct Medals were awarded for these operations.
East Africa 1906
Awarded for service under the command of Lieutenant F.W.O. Maycock, DSO, Suffolk Regiment, in the Embu Territory between 18 June and 19 July 1906.
Somaliland 1908-10
(Both silver and bronze variations)
Awarded for service in Somaliland between 19 August 1908 and January 1910. The qualifying service on land for this award was as follows:-
I). Operations under the command of Colonel J.E. Gough VC, CMG, Major (temporarily Lieutenant-Colonel) J.A. Hanyngton, Indian Army, or Lieutenant-Colonel F.J. Fowler DSO, Indian Army, against the Somalis.
The qualifying service for naval operations for this award was as follows:-
I). Ships of the Mediterranean Fleet and East Indies Squadron that were employed in the blockade of the Somali coast in connection with the operations.
II). Those engaged in patrolling or were at Aden between 19 August 1908 and 31 January 1910.
Occasional visits did not, however, count for the award.
Both silver and bronze were awarded.
West Africa 1908
Awarded for service in the Sonkwala district, West Africa, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel G.F.A. Whitlock, Royal Engineers, Chief Commissioner Anglo-German Boundary Com-mission, Captain C.E. Heathcote, Yorkshire Light Infantry, commanding the Anglo-German Boundary Commission escort and Lieutenant H.L. Homan, Middlesex Regiment between 11-31 December 1908.
West Africa 1909-10
Awarded for service in expeditions in the Ogwashi-Oku territory, West Africa, between 2 November 1909 and 27 May 1910. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Operations under the command of Captain (Honorary Major) G.N. Sheffield, 3 Essex Regiment between 2 November and 18 December 1909.
II). Operations under the command of Captain (Honorary Major) G.N. Sheffield, 3 Essex Regiment between 6 January and 24 April 1910.
III). Operations under the command of Major G.E. Bruce, Norfolk Regiment between 4 and 27 May 1910.
East Africa 1913
Awarded for service under the command of Captain W.T. Brooks, Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry, against the Dodingas in East Africa between 17 June and 7 August 1913.
East Africa 1913-14
Awarded for service under the command of Lieutenant Colonel B.R. Graham, 3 King’s African Rifles, against the Merehan tribe in the East Africa Protectorate between 15 December 1913 and 31 May 1914.
East Africa 1914
 
Awarded for service in the punitive expeditions against the Turkhana tribe under the command of Captain R.H. Leeke, Rifle Brigade, Lieutenant S.W.H. Silver, Suffolk Regiment, and Lieutenant H.A. Lilley, Yorkshire Regiment in the North Frontier district of British East Africa and the Uganda borders west of Lake Rudolf between 2 April and 7 July 1914.
East Africa 1915
Awarded for participation in an expedition under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel W.F.S. Edwards DSO against the Turkhanas, in the north frontier districts, British East Africa, and on the Uganda borders, west of Lake Rudolf between 4 February and 28 May 1915.
Shimber Berris 1914-15
Awarded for service in two brief campaigns against dervishes at Shimber Berris 19-25 November 1914 and 2-9 February 1915 under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel T.A. Cubitt DSO, Royal Artillery, in which Indian troops were largely employed to destroy fortifications in British Somaliland.
Nyasaland 1915
Awarded for service mainly undertaken by the King’s African Rifles and local volunteers for service to quell the Chilembwe uprising during a rebellion in the Shire Highlands in Nyasaland between 24 January and 17 February 1915.
East Africa 1915
 
Awarded for service against the Turkana people during 1915.
Jubaland 1917-18
(Both silver and bronze variations)
Awarded for service under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel W.E.H. Barrett, King’s African Rifles, Major E.G.M. Porcelli, Duke of Cornwalls’ Light Infantry, Captain J.F. Wolseley-Bourne and Captain O. Martin, King’s African Rifles, in operations against the northern Aulihan tribe, west of the Juba River, or north or east of a line Waregta, Lake Albeleni, Lorian Swamp, Eil Wak, Dolo between 23 July 1917 and 24 March 1918.
Both silver and bronze were awarded.
East Africa 1918
Awarded for service under the command of Major R.F. White, Essex Regiment, Major H, Rayne MC, King’s African Rifles, Captain J.H.R. Yardley DSO, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, in military operations against the northern Turkhana, Marille, Donyiro and kindred tribes in the vicinity of the southern Sudan boundary and west of Lake Rudolf between 20 April and 19 June 1918.
Nigeria 1918
Awarded for service during a revolt by the Egba tribe in the vicinity of the Nigerian Government Railway (main line) from Abeokuta in the north to Lagos in the south within the area bounded on the east by a line from Abeokuta through Ijebu – Ode to Lagos, and on the west by a line from Abeokutato the Ilaro, thence through Igbessa to Lagos, known locally as the Adubi War between 11 June and 31 July 1918.
Somaliland 1920.
 
Awarded for service under the command of Major (temporary Colonel) G.H. Summers CMG, KGO, 26 Light Cavalry, Indian Army, under the general directions of the Governor and Commander - in - Chief of the Protectorate Sir G.R. Archer KCMG in the fifth and final expedition against Muhammed bin Abdullah, ('the Mad Mullah') between 21 January and 12 February 1920.
NB: Captain A. Gibb DSO, DCM, was the only European to gain all six clasps for expeditions against Muhammed bin Abdullah.
Kenya
 
Awarded fifty years after the medal was introduced and is by far the most common, it was awarded for service during the Mau Mau Uprising by the Kikuyu people between 21 October 1952 and 17 November 1956.
A large number of British regiments and Royal Air Force squadrons received the medal. Originally sanctioned by Army Order 15, 1955, the qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). 91 days or more service against the Mau Mau within a designated operational areas: Central or Southern province of Kenya, in the Naivasha, Nakuru or Laikipia districts of the Rift Valley province, or the Nairobi extra – provincial District;
II). 30 days for air crew of the Royal Air Force;
III). 30 days on posted strength in the operating area for the Kenya Police Reserve Air Wing (full-time).
The award of this clasp was 35 years after its predecessor making the Africa General Service Medal the longest available of any British campaign medal.
 
Further relevant historical context can be found at the foot of this entry.
 
Dealer Retail Value */**
 
Africa GSM with Kenya clasp to Royal Navy
£425.00
Africa GSM with Kenya clasp to British Army units
£135.00
Africa GSM with Kenya clasp to R.A.F.
£175.00
Africa GSM with Kenya clasp to African units
£95.00
Africa GSM with Kenya clasp to Indian units
£75.00
Africa GSM other clasps to African units from
£225.00+
Africa GSM other clasps to Indian units from
£195.00+
For valuations for medals with specific clasps, or, 1 or more clasps to Royal Navy please ‘contact us’. ***
For valuations for medals with specific clasps, or, 1 or more clasps to Royal Marines please ‘contact us’. ***
For valuations for medals with specific clasps, or, 1 or more clasps to British Army units please ‘contact us’. ***
For valuations for medals with specific clasps, or, 1 or more clasps to South African units please ‘contact us’. ***
For valuations for medals with specific clasps, or, 1 or more clasps to Indian units please ‘contact us’. ***
 
* It should be noted that the values quoted above reflect the average price that a medal dealer may expect to sell this medal for - please see the ‘things you should know’ web page for more details about valuing medals.
 
** The individual medal value will vary considerably based on the recipient’s details.
 
*** Due to the large number of clasps available for this medal, the value for medals which contains certain clasps will vary considerably.
 
Further Historical Context
 
This section contains information on:-
 
- The Scramble For Africa.
- The British Central Africa Protectorate.
- The British West Africa Protectorate.
- The British East Africa Protectorate.
- The British Protectorate of Uganda.
- The Jubaland State.
- Colonial Nigeria.
- Colonial Gambia.
- The Lango Of South Sudan.
- British Somaliland.
- The Anglo-Aro War.
- The Nandi County.
- Mount Shimbiris.
- The Nyasaland Protectorate.
- The Adubi War.
- The Somaliland Campaign.
- The Kenya Emergency.
- The King's African Rifles.
- The Royal Navy’s West Africa Squadron.
- The Royal Navy’s Cape of Good Hope Station.
- The Royal Navy’s East Indies Station.
- The Royal Navy's Actions Against Slavery.
 
The Scramble For Africa - The ‘Scramble for Africa’ (also known as the ‘Race for Africa’ or the Partition of Africa) was the invasion, occupation, colonization, and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism between 1881 and 1914.
 
In 1870, 10% of Africa was under European control; by 1914 it was 90%, with only Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and Liberia still independent. The Berlin Conference of 1884, which regulated European colonization and trade in Africa, is often cited as a convenient starting point.
 
Consequent to the political and economic rivalries among the European empires, in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning of Africa was how the Europeans avoided warring amongst themselves over Africa.
 
The last 59 years of the 19th century saw the transition from ‘informal imperialism’ (hegemony) by military influence and economic dominance, to the direct rule of colonies.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The British Central Africa Protectorate - The British Central Africa Protectorate (BCA) was a protectorate proclaimed in 1889 and ratified in 1891 that occupied the same area as present-day Malawi: it was renamed Nyasaland in 1907. British interest in the area arose from visits by David Livingstone from 1858 onward during his exploration of the Zambezi area.
 
This encouraged missionary activity starting in the 1860s, followed by a small number of settlers. The Portuguese government attempted to claim much of this area, but their claims were disputed by the British government. To forestall a Portuguese expedition claiming effective occupation, a protectorate was proclaimed, first over the south of this area, then over the whole of it in 1889.
 
After negotiations with the Portuguese and German governments on its boundaries, the protectorate was formally ratified by the British government in May, 1891.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The British West Africa Protectorate - British West Africa was the collective name for British colonies in West Africa during the colonial period, either in the general geographical sense or more specifically those comprised in a formal colonial administrative entity.
 
The United Kingdom colonised varying parts of these territories or the whole from the late 1780s until the 1960s.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The British East Africa Protectorate - The East Africa Protectorate (also known as British East Africa) was an area of East Africa occupying roughly the same terrain as present-day Kenya from the Indian Ocean inland to Uganda and the Great Rift Valley.
 
It was controlled by Britain in the late 19th century; it grew out of British commercial interests in the area in the 1880s and remained a protectorate until 1920 when it became the colony of Kenya.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The British Protectorate of Uganda - The British Protectorate of Uganda was a protectorate of the British Empire from 1894 to 1962. In 1893 the Imperial British East Africa Company transferred its administration rights of territory consisting mainly of Buganda Kingdom to the British Government.
 
In 1894 the Uganda Protectorate was established, and the territory was extended beyond the borders of Buganda to an area that roughly corresponds to that of present-day Uganda.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Jubaland State - Jubaland State of Somalia, also known as Jubaland, the Juba Valley or Azania is an autonomous region in southern Somalia. Its eastern border lies 40–60 km east of the Jubba River, stretching from Gedo to the Indian Ocean, while its western side flanks the North Eastern Province, which was carved out of Jubaland during the colonial period.
 
In antiquity, the Jubaland region's various port cities and harbours, such as Essina and Sarapion, were an integral part of global trade. During the Middle Ages, the influential Somali Ajuuraan State held sway over the territory, followed in turn by the Geledi Sultanate. From 1836 until 1861, parts of Jubaland were claimed by the Sultanate of Muscat (now in Oman), and were later incorporated into British East Africa.
 
In 1925, Jubaland was ceded to Italy, forming a part of Italian Somaliland. On 1 July 1960, the region, along with the rest of Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland, became part of the independent republic of Somalia.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
Colonial Nigeria - Influence of the British Empire on the territories which now form Nigeria began with prohibition of slave trade to British subjects in 1807. The resulting collapse of African slave trade led to the decline and eventual collapse of the Oyo Empire. British influence in the Niger area increased gradually over the 19th century, but Britain did not effectively occupy the area until 1885, and then under competition from France and Germany.
 
The colonial period proper in Nigeria lasted from 1900 to 1960. In 1900, the Niger Coast Protectorate and some territories of the Royal Niger Company were united to form the Southern Nigeria Protectorate, while other Royal Niger Company territories became the Northern Nigeria Protectorate.
 
In 1914, the Northern and Southern Nigeria Protectorates were unified into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria while maintaining considerable regional autonomy among the three major regions. Progressive constitutions after World War II provided for increasing representation and electoral government by Nigerians. In October 1, 1960, Nigeria gained independence.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
Colonial Gambia - During the late 17th and throughout the 18th century, England and later Great Britain constantly struggled with France for political and commercial supremacy in the regions of the Senegal and Gambia Rivers. The 1783 Peace of Paris gave Great Britain possession of the Gambia, but the French retained a tiny enclave at Albreda on the north bank of the river, which was ceded to the British in 1857.
 
As many as three million slaves may have been taken from the region during the three centuries that the Atlantic slave trade operated. It is not known how many slaves were taken by Arab traders before and during the transatlantic slave trade.
 
Most of those taken were sold to Europeans by other Africans; some were prisoners of intertribal wars; some were sold because of unpaid debts, while others were kidnapped. Slaves were initially sent to Europe to work as servants until the market for labor expanded in the West Indies and North America in the 18th century.
 
In 1807, slave trading was abolished throughout the British Empire, and the British tried unsuccessfully to end the slave trade in the Gambia. They established the military post of Bathurst (now Banjul) in 1816. In the ensuing years, Bathurst was at times under the jurisdiction of the British Governor General in Sierra Leone. In 1888, the Gambia became a separate colonial entity.
 
An 1889 agreement with France established the present boundaries, and the Gambia became a British Crown Colony, divided for administrative purposes into the colony (city of Banjul and the surrounding area) and the protectorate (remainder of the territory).
 
The Gambia received its own executive and legislative councils in 1901 and gradually progressed toward self-government. A 1906 ordinance abolished slavery.
 
During the Second World War, Gambian troops fought with the Allies in Burma. Banjul served as an air stop for the U.S. Army Air Corps and a port of call for Allied naval convoys. U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt stopped overnight in Banjul en route to and from the Casablanca Conference in 1943, marking the first visit to the African continent by an American president while in office.
 
After the Second World War, the pace of constitutional reform increased. Following general elections in 1962, full internal self-governance was granted in the following year. The Gambia achieved independence on February 18, 1965 as a constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth. Shortly thereafter, the government held a referendum proposing that an elected president replace the Gambian monarch as head of state.
 
The referendum failed to obtain the two-thirds majority required to amend the constitution, but the results received widespread attention abroad as testimony to the Gambia's observance of secret balloting, honest elections, and civil rights and liberties. On April 24, 1970, the Gambia became a republic within the Commonwealth, following a second referendum, with Prime Minister Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara as head of state.
 
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The Lango Of South Sudan - In 1821 the Sennar Sultanate to the north collapsed in the face of an invasion by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty. After consolidating their control over northern Sudan, the Egyptian forces began to foray south. In 1827 Ali Khurshid Pasha led a force through the Dinka lands and in 1830 led an expedition to the junction of the White Nile and the Sobat. The most successful missions were led by Admiral Salim Qabudan who between 1839 and 1842 sailed the White Nile, reaching as far south as modern Juba.
 
The Egyptian forces attempted to set up forts and garrisons in the region, but disease and defection forced their quick abandonment. While claimed by the Khedives of Egypt, they had no real authority over the region. In 1851, under pressure from foreign powers, the government of Egypt opened the region to European merchants and missionaries.
 
The Europeans found a large supply of ivory, but found the local Bari had little interest in anything they were selling. As a result the merchants often turned to force, seizing the ivory, even this proved not to be economical and the merchant ventures had little success. Christian missionaries also established posts in the region, with the Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of Central Africa, covering the region. The missionaries also had little impact on the region in the early 19th century.
 
The lack of formal authority was filled in the 1850s by a set of powerful merchant princes. In the east Muhammad Ahmad al-Aqqad controlled much land, but the most powerful was Al-Zubayr Rahma Mansur who came to control the Bahr el Ghazal and other parts of South Sudan. Al-Zubayr was a merchant from Khartoum, who hired his own private army and marched south.
 
He set up a network of trading forts known as zaribas through the region, and from these forts controlled local trade. The most valuable commodity was ivory. In previous centuries Sudanese merchants had not placed a high price on ivory, but the period of Egyptian rule coincided with a great increase in global demand as middle class Americans and Europeans began to purchase pianos and billiard balls.
 
To manage the trade al-Zubayr needed labour, and thus also began to capture a significant number of slaves. To his mercenary force, he also conscripted a large slave army. Due to trade disputes with the Sultanate of Darfur al-Zubayr went to war against that kingdom and in 1874 defeated their forces and killed Ibrahim, the last Fur Sultan.
 
The Khedive of Egypt, Isma'il Pasha, was concerned over the growing power al-Zubayr, and established the province of Equatoria and planned to colonized the area. Isma'il hired the British explorer Samuel Baker in 1869 to govern the area, and supplied him with soldiers and generous financing, but Baker was unable to extend Egyptian power over the area.
 
To dispose of Al-Zubayr, Isma'il dispatched the mercenary leader Muhammed al-Bulalwi and promised him the governorship of Bahr el Ghazal, if he defeated al-Zubayr. Instead al-Zubayr routed the invaders and killed al-Bulalwi. In 1873 Isma'il thus agreed to appoint al-Zubayr as governor.
 
Isma'il was still threatened by al-Zubayr and his independent base of power. The British media was also filled with stories about al-Zubayr the ‘Slaver King’.
 
In 1874 Charles George Gordon was appointed governor of Equatoria. In 1877 al-Zubayr travelled to Cairo to ask for the governoship of Darfur as well, but was placed under house arrest by Is'mail. Gordon defeated al-Zubayr's son, ending the merchants' control of the region. Despite this, Gordon still failed to exert authority over any territory in the region beyond the lands immediately around his few forts.
 
In 1878, Gordon was replaced by Emin Pasha (Eduard Schnitzer). The Mahdist Revolt did not spread south to the non-Muslim region, but cut off the South Sudan from Egypt, leaving Emin Pasha isolated and without resources. He was rescued in a mission led by Henry Morton Stanley.
 
Equatoria ceased to exist as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. Important settlements in Equatoria included Lado, Gondokoro, Dufile and Wadelai. In 1947, British hopes to join the southern part of Sudan with Uganda were dashed by the Juba Conference, to unify northern and southern Sudan.
 
The region has been negatively affected by two civil wars since before Sudanese independence, resulted in serious neglect, lack of infrastructural development, and major destruction and displacement. More than 2.5 million people have been killed, and more than five million have become externally displaced while others have been internally displaced, becoming refugees as a result of the civil war and war-related impacts.
 
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British Somaliland - British Somaliland was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia. For much of its existence, the territory was bordered by Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland and Ethiopia.
 
From 1940 to 1941, it was occupied by the Italians and was part of Italian East Africa. The protectorate briefly obtained independence on 26 June 1960 as the State of Somaliland before uniting as scheduled with the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic on 1 July 1960.
 
The government of Somaliland, a self-declared sovereign state that is internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia, regards the territory as the successor state to the State of Somaliland
 
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The Anglo-Aro War - The Anglo–Aro War, (1901–1902) was a conflict between the Aro Confederacy in present day Eastern Nigeria, and the British Empire. The war began after increasing tension between Aro leaders and British colonialists after years of failed negotiations.
 
The Aro Confederacy, whose powers extended across Eastern Nigeria and beyond was challenged in the last decades of the 19th century by increasing British penetration of the hinterland. The Aro people and their allies resisted the penetration which threatened their culture, influence, and sovereignty.
 
Reasons for the war advanced by Sir Ralph Moore, the British High Commissioner of the Nigerian Coast Protectorate, included:
 
‘To put a stop to slave dealing and the slave trade generally with a view to the Slave Dealing Proclamation No. 5 of 1901 being enforced throughout the entire territories as from first of January next; to abolish the Juju hierarchy of the Aro tribe, which by superstition and fraud causes much injustice among the coast tribes generally and is opposed to the establishment of Government.
 
The power of the priesthood is also employed in obtaining natives for sale as slaves and it is essential to finally break it; to open up the country of the entire Aro to civilization; to induce the natives to engage in legitimate trade; to introduce a currency in lieu of slaves, brass rods, and other forms of native currency and to facilitate trade transactions; to eventually establish a labour market as a substitute to the present system of slavery…’
 
The Aros knew that British penetration would destroy their economic dominance of the hinterland. They also opposed their religion, Christianity, which threatened their religious influence through their oracle Ibini Ukpabi.
 
The Aro led raids and invasions on communities were conducted in order to undermine British penetration since the 1890s. While the British prepared for the invasion of Arochukwu in November 1901, the Aro launched their last major offensive before the Aro Expedition by British forces. Aro forces led by Okoro Toti sacked Obegu (a British ally) which resulted in 400 people dying. This attack quickened British preparation for their offensive.
 
Sir Ralph Moore and the Royal Niger Company had planned the attack on the Aros and the Ibini Ukpabi oracle since September 1899 but due to lack of necessary manpower, it was delayed until November 1901. On November 28, Lt. Col. A. F. Montanaro led 87 officers, 1,550 soldiers and 2,100 carriers in four axes of advance to Arochukwu from Oguta, Akwete, Unwuna and Itu on a counter-insurgency campaign.
 
As expected, Aro forces resisted all axes strongly, although they lacked modern weapons. However, Arochukwu was captured on December 28 after four days of fierce battles in and around the city. As a result the Ibini Ukpabi shrine was allegedly blown up. Battles between British and Aro forces continued throughout the region until spring 1902 when Aro forces were defeated in the last major battle at Bende. The Aro Expedition ended three weeks later.
 
Some of the Aro leaders, like Okoro Toti, were arrested, tried by tribunals, and hanged. The Aro Confederacy was destroyed and Eze Kanu Okoro (king of Arochukwu), went into hiding but was later arrested. Although Aro dominance crumbled in March 1902, many Aros took part in later resistances against the British in the region such as in Afikpo (1902–1903), Ezza (1905), and other areas where the Aro had a particularly significant presence.
 
The defeat of the Aro did help the British in their imperial agenda of conquest of the interior, but serious opposition to British penetration in Igboland clearly did not end with the Anglo–Aro War. In the years that followed, the British had to deal with many other conflicts and wars in various parts of Igboland such as the Nri Conflict (1905–1911), Ekumeku War (1883–1914), Igbo Women's War (1929).
 
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The Nandi County - Nandi County, earlier a part of Rift Valley Province, is a county based in Kenya. Its capital, Kapsabet, is the largest town in the county. According to a 2009 census, the county has a population of 752,965.
 
The county's major area is covered by the Nandi Hills. Although there are number of tribal communities in Nandi, the majority of the people belong to the native tribe called Nandi.
 
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Mount Shimbiris - Mount Shimbiris, also known as Mount Surud Cad is the highest peak in Somalia. It sits at an altitude of 2,460 metres (8,071 ft) above sea level. It is located in the Cal Madow mountain range in northern Somalia, in the Sanaag region. SRTM data shows that its often quoted elevation of 2,416m is slightly low.
 
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The Nyasaland Protectorate - Nyasaland, or the Nyasaland Protectorate was a British protectorate located in Africa, which was established in 1907 when the former British Central Africa Protectorate changed its name. Between 1953 and 1963, Nyasaland was part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. After the Federation was dissolved, Nyasaland became independent from Britain on 6 July 1964 and was renamed Malawi.
 
Nyasaland's history was marked by the massive loss of African communal lands in the early colonial period and the negative attitude of the colonial administration to African aspirations.
 
A growing educated African elite became increasingly vocal and politically active, first through associations, and after 1944, through the Nyasaland African Congress (NAC). After the abortive attempt of John Chilembwe in 1915, attempts to obtain independence were subdued until agitation over plans to set up the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. This revitalised the NAC under the leadership of Hastings Banda.
 
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The Adubi War - The Adubi War, (known locally as Ogun Adubi) or Egba Uprising, was a conflict that occurred in June-August 1918 in Colonial Nigeria as a result of taxation introduced by the Colonial government. British soldiers who fought in the war received the Africa General Service medal.
 
The war consisted of thirty thousand egba fighters destroying much of the railway and telegraphs lines south of Abeokuta along with the killing of a European trading agent and a high-ranking Egba chief.
 
The incident was the culmination of the abrogation of Abeokuta's independence in 1918, and the introduction of direct taxation and forced unpaid labor in Abeokuta. There is a Village called Elere-Adubi where a priest and war lord Adubi, wage war with the British soldiers stoping the British soldiers taken the villagers for unpaid labor in Abeokuta
 
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The Somaliland Campaign - The Somaliland campaign of 1920 was the final British expedition against the Dervish forces of Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (often called the 'Mad Mullah' in English), the Somali religious leader.
 
Although the majority of the combat took place in January of the year, British troops had begun preparations for the assault as early as November 1919.
 
The British forces included elements of the Royal Air Force and the Somaliland Camel Corps. After three weeks of battle, Hassan's Dervishes were finally defeated, bringing an effective end to their 20 year resistance.
 
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The Kenya Emergency - The Mau Mau Uprising (also known as the Mau Mau Revolt, Mau Mau Rebellion and Kenya Emergency) was a military conflict that took place in Kenya between 1952 and 1960.
 
It involved Kikuyu-dominated criminal groups summarily called Mau Mau and elements of the British Army, the local Kenya Regiment mostly consisting of the British, auxiliaries and anti-Mau Mau Kikuyu. The capture of rebel leader Dedan Kimathi on 21 October 1956 signalled the ultimate defeat of Mau Mau, and essentially ended the British military campaign.
 
Mau Mau failed to capture widespread public support, partly due to the British policy of divide and rule, and the movement remained internally divided, despite attempts to unify its various strands. The British, meanwhile, could draw upon their ongoing efforts to put down another rebellion in Malaya.
 
The uprising created a rift between the European colonial community in Kenya and the metropole, but also resulted in violent divisions within the Kikuyu community. The financial cost of the uprising to the former colony amounted to £55 million.
 
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The King's African Rifles - The King's African Rifles was a multi-battalion British colonial regiment raised from the various British possessions in East Africa from 1902 until independence in the 1960s.
 
It performed both military and internal security functions within the East African colonies as well as external service as recorded hereafter. Rank and file were Africans called askaris, while most officers were seconded from British Army regiments.
 
When raised there were some Sudanese officers in the Uganda-raised battalions and towards the end of British colonial rule African officers were commissioned in the various battalions.
 
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The Royal Navy’s West Africa Squadron - The Royal Navy established the West Africa Squadron (or Preventative Squadron) at substantial expense in 1808 after Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act of 1807.
 
The squadron's task was to suppress the Atlantic slave trade by patrolling the coast of West Africa. With a home base at Portsmouth, it began with two small ships, the 32-gun fifth-rate frigate HMS Solebay and the Cruiser-class brig-sloop HMS Derwent.
 
At the height of its operations, the squadron employed a sixth of the Royal Navy fleet and marines.
 
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The Royal Navy’s Cape of Good Hope Station - The Cape of Good Hope Station was one of the geographical divisions into which the British Royal Navy divided its worldwide responsibilities. It was formally the units and establishments responsible to the Commander-in-Chief, Cape of Good Hope.
 
Established in 1857, the station covered most of the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. On 17 January 1865, it was combined with the East Indies Station to form the East Indies and Cape of Good Hope Station; however, the station was recreated as a separate station on 29 July 1867.
 
These responsibilities did not imply territorial claims but the navy would actively protect Britain's trading interests. From 1870, it absorbed the former West Africa Squadron. It formed the basis of the South Atlantic Station when that Station was formed in 1939.
 
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The Royal Navy’s East Indies Station - The Commander-in-Chief, East Indies was a British Royal Navy admiral, and effectively the formation subordinate to him, from 1865 to 1941. Even in official documents, the term East Indies Station was often used.
 
From 1831-1865, the East Indies and the China Station were a single command known as the East Indies and China Station.
 
The East Indies Station, established in 1865, covered the Indian Ocean (excluding the waters around the Dutch East Indies, South Africa and Australia) and included the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. These responsibilities did not imply territorial claims, but rather that the navy would actively protect Britain's trading interests.
 
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The Royal Navy's Actions Against Slavery - In 1808, Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act of 1807, which outlawed the slave trade, but not slavery itself. The Royal Navy established the West Africa Squadron to suppress the Atlantic slave trade by patrolling the coast of West Africa.
 
It did suppress the slave trade, but did not stop it entirely. It is possible that, when slave ships were in danger of being captured by the Royal Navy, some captains may have ordered the slaves to be thrown into the sea to reduce the fines they had to pay.
 
Between 1808 and 1860 the West Africa Squadron captured 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans. They resettled many in Jamaica and the Bahamas.
 
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