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17/11/2019 04:29am

India General Service Medal 1908 - 1935

Conflict
 
General Service In India Between 1908 - 1935.
 
Further relevant historical context can be found at the foot of this entry.
 
History
 
The India General Service Medal was a British Empire campaign medal presented to those who participated in operations in India for which no other separate medal was intended. The medal was instituted in January 1909 and was awarded for campaign service on the Indian frontiers and elsewhere as defined by the bars issued with the medal.
 
The medal was never issued without a bar and bronze versions of this medal were awarded to native bearers.
 
Description
 
The medal is circular, 36mm in diameter and struck in either silver or bronze. The obverse of this medal bears the effigy of the reigning monarch at the time that the medal was issued and a corresponding inscription. This is summarised in the table below:-.
 
Monarch
Issue & Type
Obverse Style & Inscription
Dates
Edward VII
1
EVII 1
In Field Marshals Uniform
EDWARDVS VII KISAR-I-HIND
1908 - 1910
George V
2
GV 1
Crowned, and in coronation robes GEORGIVS V KISAR-I-HIND
1910 - 1919
George V
3
GV 2
Crowned, in coronation robes GEORGIVS. V. D. G. BRITT. OMN. REX. ET. INDIAE. IMP
1919 - 1935
 
The reverse depicts the fortress of Jamrud at the Khyber Pass with the inscription 'INDIA' within a wreath below.
 
The ribbon suspender is of the swivelling ornate scroll style, attached to the medal by a claw mount.
 
The recipient's details can be found on the medal's rim. Generally they are impressed in sans-serif capitals with some slight variations between issues, but medals with the first two bars issued were engraved in running script.
 
Ribbon
 
India General Service Medal 1909 BAR.svg
 
The ribbon is 32mm wide and is green in colour with a wide central blue band.
 
Bars/Clasps
 
This medal was issued with the following bars:-
 
North West Frontier 1908
Awarded to all troops and all enrolled and attested followers:-
I). Who formed part of the Bazar Valley Field Force, and proceeded under the orders of the General Officer Commanding that force from Ali Musjid into or towards the Bazar Valley between the 14 February, 1908 and the 1 March, 1908, both dates inclusive. Those who did not proceed beyond Ali Musjid were not entitled to the award.
II). Who served north of the Adinazai boat bridge between the 19 and 25 April, 1908, both dates inclusive.
III). Who were at Landi Kotal between the 2 and 4 May 1908, both dates inclusive.
IV). Who formed part of the Mohmand Field Force and proceeded under the orders of the General Officer Commanding the force beyond Hafiz Kor between the 12 and 31 May 1908, both dates inclusive.
Abor 1911–12
Awarded to all troops who took part in the Abor Expedition of 1911-12, and served, under the orders of Major General H. Bower, CB, commanding the force, at or beyond Kobo between the 6 October, 1911 and the 20 April, 1912, both dates inclusive.
Afghanistan NWF 1919
Awarded to all troops who served:-
I). West of the Indus, exclusive of the Province of Sind, between 6 May 1919 and 8 August 1919, both dates inclusive.
II). Under the orders of the General Officer Commanding the Baluchistan Force on the East Persian lines of communication between 6 May 1919 and 8 August 1919, both dates inclusive.
III). In North-East Persia under the orders of Major-General W. Malleson, C.B, C.I.E., between 6 May, 1919 and 8 August 1919, both dates inclusive.
IV). In the Khyber Pass, west of and excluding Jamrud, between 9 August, 1919 and 30 September 1919, both dates inclusive.
V). With the Waziristan Force, including those stationed at Darya Khan, Mianwali, Mari-Indus and Kalabagh, between 9 August 1919 and 30 September 1919, both dates inclusive.
Mahsud 1919–20
Awarded to all officers and men who served under the orders of the General Officer Commanding, Waziristan Force, on the Takki Zam Line, north of and including Jandola, between 18 December, 1919 and 8 April 1920, both dates inclusive.
Waziristan 1919–21
Awarded to all officers and men of the Waziristan Force who took part in the operations on the Bannu Line between 1 October 1919 and 27 November 1919, both dates inclusive, and the Tank Line between 1 October 1919 and 20 December 1921 both dates inclusive, or who served west of Kharkon Algad, between 27 November 1921 and 16 December, 1921 both dates inclusive; and to troops which occupied the lower Zhob Posts (Brunj Safi, Mir Ali Khel, and Mogul Kot), between 12 November 1920 and 31 May 1921, both dates inclusive.
The boundary between the Bannu and Tank lines was:-
Administrative boundary between North and South Waziristan - southern boundary of Bannu Civil District - Indus Mianwali, Mari-Indus, and Kalabagh were included in both lines. Darya Khan was included in Tank line.
Malabar 1921–22
Awarded to all troops, authorised public and private followers and civilian personnel borne on the War Establishment (India) who took part in the operations between 20 August 1921 and 25 February 1922, in Malabar, within the areas bounded on the west by the sea; on the south by the Ponnani River; on the east by a north and south line from Gudalur to the Ponnani River, and on the north by an east and west line from Gudalur to the sea.
Waziristan 1921–24
Awarded to all troops, authorised public and private followers and civilian personnel borne on the War Establishment (India) who served in North and South Waziristan, Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan Civil Districts and that portion of the Mianwali District which lies west of the River Indus, also the military posts of Mari Indus and Darya Khan, east of the River Indus, between 21 December 1921 and 31 March 1924, both dates inclusive.
Waziristan 1925
Awarded to all who took part in the Royal Air Force operations carried out in Waziristan between 9 March 1925 and 1 May 1925, under the command of Wing Commander R. C. M. Pink, CBE, Royal Air Force.
North West Frontier 1930–31
Awarded to all officers and men who were employed in the operations on the North West Frontier and served on the establishment of a unit or formation:-
In the military districts of Peshawar (excluding Chitral Agency), Kohat and Waziristan between 23 April 1930 and 30 September 1930, both dates inclusive. Between 1 October, 1930 and 22 March 1931, both dates inclusive, within the following boundaries:-
I). North - All exclusive. Barzar River-Khyber River to bridge on Peshawar-Jamrud road, 7½ miles from Peshawar.
II). East - All inclusive. The Frontier Road from the above mentioned bridge to Narai Khwar Post; thence Frontier Road to Bara Fort - Matanni - Aimal Chabutra.
III). South and West. A line from and including Aimal Chabutra to Point 2498 (5 miles N.W. Kohat); thence Administrative Border to Afghan Frontier.
Burma 1930–32
Awarded to all officers and men employed in operations in Burma during 1930-32 who served on the establishment of a unit or formation:-
I). Who were despatched from India and actually served in Burma in connection with the rebellion, between 22 December 1930 and 25 March 1932, both dates inclusive.
II). Not included in (a), who served in Burma between 22 December 1930 and 25 March 1932, both dates inclusive, within the boundaries of the following civil districts; (NB - A list of 25 named districts).
Mohmand 1933
Awarded to all officers and men who were employed in operations against the Upper Mohmands on the North West Frontier of India during 1933, who served on the strength of a unit or formation of the Mohmand Force, and certain personnel of the Peshawar District who served in the area west of the road Abarzai-Shabkadar Fort-Shabkadar-Pir Kala-Michni, be-tween the Swat and Kabul Rivers, inclusive of the above mentioned places, during the period 28 July 1933 and 3 October 1933, both dates inclusive.
North West Frontier 1935
I). Awarded to all officers and men who were employed in the Loe Agra operations on the North West Frontier of India, between 23 February and 13 April 1935, both dates inclusive, who were on the strength of a unit or formation employed in the operations, and who served within the following areas:-
Northern Boundary-The Swat River to its junction with River Panjkora.
Southern Boundary-Line of road Dargai to Kot prolonged through Khanori to the Swat River.
Eastern Boundary-Line (inclusive) Kalangai to (inclusive) Kot.
II). Awarded to all officers and men who were employed in the operations in the Mohmand country between midnight 15/16 August and midnight 15/16 October 1935; who served on the strength of a unit or formation employed in the operations, and who served within the following geographical limits:-
Working from the East, down to Swat River to the Administrative Border; thence South West along the Administrative Border, including Kilagai Camp, to the Kabul River; thence along the Kabul River.
 
NB: In addition to the clasps mentioned below, if the recipient was ‘Mentioned in Despatches’ while undertaking the services described, this was noted by the wearing of an ‘oak leaf’ emblem on the ribbon situated above the clasps.
 
Further relevant historical context can be found at the foot of this entry.
 
Dealer Retail Value */**
 
With North West Frontier clasp to British Army
£175.00
With North West Frontier clasp to Indian recipient
£95.00
With Abor 1911-12 clasp to Indian recipient
£195.00
With Afghanistan 1919 clasp to British Army
£90.00
With Afghanistan 1919 clasp to R.A.F.
£170.00
With Afghanistan 1919 clasp to Indian recipient
£45.00
With Waziristan 1919-21 clasp to British Army
£130.00
With Waziristan 1919-21 clasp to R.A.F.
£190.00
With Waziristan 1919-21 clasp to Indian recipient
£45.00
With Mahsud 1919-20 clasp to British Army
£130.00
With Mahsud 1919-20 to R.A.F.
£600.00
With Mahsud 1919-20 clasp to Indian recipient
£75.00
With Malabar 1921-22 clasp to British Army
£185.00
With Malabar 1921-22 clasp to Indian recipient
£130.00
With Waziristan 1921-24 clasp to British Army
£75.00
With Waziristan 1921-24 to R.A.F.
£175.00
With Waziristan 1921-24 clasp to Indian recipient
£45.00
With Waziristan 1925 to R.A.F.
£1000.00
With NW Frontier 1930-31 to British Army
£90.00
With NW Frontier 1930-31 to R.A.F.
£150.00
With NW Frontier 1930-31 to Indian recipient
£45.00
With Burma 1930-32 clasp to British Army
£125.00
With Burma 1930-32 clasp to R.A.F
£1500.00
With Burma 1930-32 clasp to Indian recipient
£70.00
With Mohmand 1933 clasp to British Army
£225.00
With Mohmand 1933 clasp to R.A.F.
£500.00
With Mohmand 1933 clasp to Indian recipient
£50.00
With NW Frontier 1935 clasp to R.A.F.
£125.00
With NW Frontier 1935 clasp to British Army
£95.00
With NW Frontier 1935 clasp to Indian recipient
£45.00
For valuations for medal with 2 or more clasps please ‘contact us’. ***
 
* It should be noted that the values quoted above reflect the average price that a medal dealer may expect to sell this medal for - please see the ‘things you should know’ web page for more details about valuing medals.
 
** The individual medal value will vary considerably based on the recipient’s details.
 
*** Due to the large number of clasps available for this medal, the value for medals which contains certain clasps will vary considerably.
 
Further Historical Context
 
This section contains information on:-
 
- The British Indian Army.
- The Army Of India.
- Operations In India And On The North West Frontier.
- The Operations In The Tochi.
- The Operations Against The Mohmands, Bunerwals And Swatis.
- The Mohmand Blockade.
- The Second Mohmand Campaign.
 
The British Indian Army - The British Indian Army, officially named just the Indian Army, was the principal army of India before independence in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both British India and the Princely states, which could also have their own armies. The Indian Army was an important part of the British Empire's forces, both in India and abroad, particularly during the First World War and the Second World War.
 
The term 'Indian Army' appears to have been first used informally, as a collective description of the Presidency armies (the Bengal Army, the Madras Army and the Bombay Army) of the Presidencies of British India, particularly after the Indian Rebellion.
 
The first army officially called the 'Indian Army' was raised by the government of India in 1895, existing alongside the three long-established presidency armies. However, in 1903 the Indian Army absorbed these three armies.
 
The Indian Army should not be confused with the 'Army of India'' (1903-1947) which was the Indian Army itself plus the 'British Army in India' (British units sent to India).
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Army Of India - The Army of India consisted of both the Indian Army and the British Army in India between 1903 and 1947.
 
Lord Kitchener was appointed Commander-in-Chief, India between 1902 and 1909. He instituted large-scale reforms of the military units in the British Raj (India), including merging the three armies of the three presidencies into a unified force and forming higher level formations, eight army divisions, and brigading Indian and British units. Following Kitchener's reforms:
 
The Indian Army was '…the force recruited locally and permanently based in India, together with its expatriate British officers'.
 
The British Army in India consisted of British Army units posted to India for a tour of duty, and which would then be posted to other parts of the Empire or back to the United Kingdom.
 
The Indian Army and the British Army in India were grouped together as the Army of India. During World War II, after the fall of Singapore and the ending of ABDACOM in early 1942, until the formation of South East Asia Command (SEAC) in August 1943 some American and Chinese units were placed under the Army of India command.
 
The officer commanding the Army of India was the Commander-in-Chief in India who reported to the civilian Governor-General. His command was known as India Command and his staff were based at GHQ India.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
Operations In India And On The North West Frontier (Part I) - In support of the British war effort in World War I, the Indian Army deployed expeditionary forces to the Western Front, East Africa, Gallipoli, Mesopotamia, Sinai and Palestine. India was thus vulnerable to hostile attention from Afghanistan.
 
A Turco-German mission arrived in Kabul in October 1915 with obvious strategic purpose. However, Amir Habibulla abided by his treaty obligations and maintained Afghanistan's neutrality, in the face of internal opposition from factions keen to side with the Ottoman Sultan. Hostilities on the frontier remained local. These included:-
 
The Operations In The Tochi (28 November 1914–27 March 1915) which were carried out by Indian Army during World War I on the North West Frontier. The Tochi river flows East from the tribal territories, through North Waziristan, to join the Kurram and the Indus rivers. On the 28 and 29 November a raid by 2,000 tribesmen from Khost was defeated by the North Waziristan Militia near Miranshah, on the Tochi.
 
The next January the militia again defeated a raid by tribesmen which had attacked Spina Khaisora. On the 25–26 March a force of over 7,000 tribesmen, threatened Miranshah, but was defeated by the Bannu Brigade together with the local militia.
 
The Operations Against The Mohmands, Bunerwals And Swatis which were carried out by the Indian Army during World War I. The first operation began at the start of 1915, with a raid by the Mohmand tribe near the Shabkadr Fort in Peshawar. In April operations continued against the Mohmands when 2,000 tribesmen attacked the troops of the 1st (Peshawar) Division and were defeated near Hafiz Kor.
 
The Operations against all three tribes (Mohmands, Bunerwals and Swatis) lasted between 17 August–28 October. These three tribes inhabit the northern half of the Peshawar district. Fighting began with the defeat of about 3,500 Bunerwals near Rustam on the 17 August, and ended with the rout of 3,000 Bajauris near the village of Wuch north of Chakdara. Another six small engagements were fought; the most important was on 5 September at Hafiz Kor, when 10,000 tribesmen were defeated.
 
The Mohmand Blockade (1916–1917) was a blockade formed by a series of blockhouses and barbed wire defences, along the Mohmand border on the North West Frontier by the Indian Army during World War I.
 
The Blockade began after a number of Mohmand raids into Peshawar. The most important engagement occurred on 15 November 1916, at Hafiz Kor, when a large number of Mohmands were defeated. The Blockade was eventually lifted in July 1917 when the Mohmands finally submitted
 
Operations In India And On The North West Frontier (Part 2) - Having upheld Afghan neutrality while India was engaged in World War I, Habibulla sought full independence for Afghanistan in February 1919. Such a reward might have consolidated his rule, but later that month he was murdered.
 
His successor Amanullah pursued a similar policy by different means. With India's Army de-mobilising, and its Government preoccupied with violent unrest in western India, Amanullah sent his troops across the Frontier in early May. At the end of the month he sought an armistice, which was granted on June 3. By the Treaty of Rawalpindi signed in August, Afghanistan gained control of its foreign affairs, and in turn, recognised the Durand Line as its border with India.
 
The short-lived war had long-term consequences in Waziristan, where tribesmen rallied to Amanullah's cause. The western militia posts were abandoned. Many of the militia deserted, taking their modern weapons and joining their fellow tribesmen in attacking the remaining posts. As a result, the Indian Army's Waziristan Force was fully engaged in re-establishing the posts and restoring the lines of communication from November until May 1920. The western base at Wana was finally reoccupied in December 1920.
 
The long-term plan for control of the district entailed building metalled roads along the lines of communication to a new central base to be established at Razmak. In 1921 work began on the southern road up the Tank Zam from Jandola, under the protection of the Waziristan Force. The following year work on the northern road from the Tochi began at Idak, shielded by the Razmak Force advancing to its objective.
 
The two roads met in 1924, linking North and South Waziristan, and enabling the Indian Army to reorganise both areas as one military district. The Waziristan and Razmak Field Forces then devolved into brigades based permanently at Manzai, Razmak, Gardai, and Bannu.
 
The following year the few tribal sections in South Waziristan remaining openly hostile were subdued by aircraft alone. For this operation the No. 2 (Indian) Wing of the RAF under Wing Commander Pink was based at Tank and Miranshah.
 
Aircraft comprising the Wana Patrol maintained regular weekly contact with the posts at Wana and Tanai until 1929, when the road from Sarwekai was completed, and the Manzai brigade relocated to Wana
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Second Mohmand Campaign - The Second Mohmand Campaign of 1935 was a British military campaign against the Mohmand tribes in the Northwest Frontier area of British India, now Pakistan. Tanks were used, the first operational use of tanks in India. The First Mohmand Campaign in 1897-98 followed earlier military expeditions in 1851-1852, 1854, 1864, 1879, 1880, and there was a small expedition in 1933, taking about a month in August.
 
In 1935 the Mohmands, influenced by the Haji of Turangzai and his three sons the Badshah Guls, were marauding in the plains. At the end of July about 2000 tribesmen were disrupting working parties repairing the Mohinand-Gandab Road.
 
The Government decided to send a sizeable punitive force against them, called the Mohmand Force or Mohforce. The force, mobilised by 17 August, included the Nowshera and Peshawar Brigades of the Indian Army, a section of the Royal Tank Corps, the 18th King Edward's Own Cavalry, and the 22nd Derajat Mountain Battery (Frontier Force), with air support from the Indian Wing commanded by Basil Embry.
 
The commanders of the Peshawar and Nowshera Brigades, Claude Auchinleck and Harold Alexander, both rose to high rank in World War II. Auchinleck, the senior Brigadier, commanded Mohforce; as the Peshawar District G.O.C. General Muspratt was on leave in Britain.
 
Mohforce left near the end of summer, with two tanks in front of the leading troops which could be used to outflank tribesman who pinned down the infantry. The tanks were Vickers Mark IIB, with a single Vickers machine gun. They did not have their radios, which had been withdrawn for their annual overhaul, so one tank had to act as a 'runner' between the tanks and the infantry. The Mohmands, having no word for tanks, called them 'the snakes that spit'.
 
The troops advanced into the Kamalai plateau, the tribal heartland west of the Swat River. The road and water supply had to be extended, taking six weeks, before they could advance into the Nahakki Pass. Then the heights around the Nahakki Pass were taken in a night operation, and after dawn the cavalry went through the pass to the plain beyond. The headquarters, now commanded by General Muspratt, was established about 5 miles south of the Nahakki Pass at Kamalai.
 
In September a reconnaissance in force southwest of Nahakki was ambushed, with 35 deaths in Mohforce: 2 British and 2 Indian officers, and 1 British and 30 Indian Other Ranks; the operation by the Guides or 5th/12th Frontier Force Regiment was described as 'sketchily planned and uncoordinated'.
 
But the septs and subtribes asked for peace at jirgas, order was restored and the force was withdrawn in early September. Auchinleck’s brigade withdrew with drums and pipes playing.
 
Captain Godfrey Meynell was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross for his gallantry on 29 September at the Nahqi Pass.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.