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General Service Medal 1918-62

Conflict
 
General Service 1918 - 1962.
 
Further relevant historical context can be found at the foot of this entry.
 
History
 
The General Service Medal 1918-62 was a British Empire campaign medal presented to those who participated in operations for which no other separate medal was intended. The medal was instituted in January 1923 and was the Army and Air Force equivalent to the Naval General Service Medal 1915-1962.
 
As is the case with other general service medals, the General Service Medal 1918-62 was always issued with a clasp denoting the area of operations. Subsequent service is recognised by the award of further clasps to be worn on the original medal
 
Description
 
The medal is circular, 36mm in diameter and struck in silver. The obverse of this medal bears the effigy of the reigning monarch at the time that the medal was issued and a corresponding inscription. This is summarised in the table below:-.
 
Monarch
Issue & Type
Obverse Style & Inscription
Dates
George V
1
GV 1
Coinage Head
GEORGIVS V BRITT: OMN: REX ET IND: IMP:
1918 - 1934
George V
2
GV 2
Crowned Head
GEORGIVS.V.D.G. BRITT-OMN- REX-ET-INDIAE-IMP.
1934 - 1936
George VI
3
GVI 1
Crowned Head
GEORGIVS VI  D: G: BR : OMN: REX ET INDIAE IMP:
1937 - 1948
George VI
4
GVI 2
Crowned Head
+GEORGIVS VI DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF
1949 - 1952
Elizabeth II
5
E:R 1
Tudor Crowned Head
ELIZABETH II D: G : BR : OMN : REGINA F: D:
1952 - 1953
Elizabeth II
6
E:R 2
Tudor Crowned Head
ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA F . D.
1953 - 1962
 
The reverse bears the standing winged figure of Victory in a Corinthian helmet and carrying a trident, bestowing a wreath on the emblems of the Army (the sword) and the RAF (the wings).
 
For the middle three issues, the Ribbon suspender was a straight economy non-swivelling type riveted to the medal. However, the first and fifth issues were the swivelling type.
 
For the first three issues, the ribbon suspender is of a fixed ornate style, while the last three issues were of the ornate and swiveling style.
 
The recipient's details can be found on the medal's rim impressed in sans serif capitals but some issued to RAF personnel are found engraved.
 
Ribbon
 
 
The ribbon is 32mm wide and is purple in colour with a single green central stripe.
 
Bars/Clasps
 
Seventeen clasps were approved for the General Service Medal 1918-62. These clasps comprise of small metal bars into which the name of the relevant campaign or theatre of operations was molded. The following clasps were issued:-
 
South Persia
Awarded for service in Persia. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Served under the command of Major-General J.A. Douglas, CMG, CIE, or of Brigadier-General A.M.S. Elsmie CMG, at or in the neighbourhood of Bushire between 12 November 1918 and 22 June 1919, both dates inclusive, or
II). Served under the command of Major-General Sir P. Sykes, KCIE, CMG., or of Lieutenant-Colonel E.F. Orton, at or in the neighbourhood of Bandar Abbas between 12 November 1918 and 3 June 1919, both dates inclusive.
Kurdistan
 
 
Awarded for service in Kurdistan. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Served at Kirkuk, or north of a line drawn east and west through Kirkuk, between 23 May 1919 and 31 July 1919, both dates inclusive, or
II). Served at Dohok, or north of a line drawn east and west through Dohok, between 14 July 1919 and 7 October 1919, both dates inclusive, or
III). Served at or north of the advance base near Akra and Amadia respectively, between 7 November 1919 and 6 December 1919, both dates inclusive, or
IV). With the military forces employed in the operations in Kurdistan in 1923, under command of Air Marshal Sir J. M. Salmond, KCB, CMG, CVO, DSO with:
a). The force under the command of Colonel Commandant B. Vincent, C.B., CMG, between 19 March 1923, and 18 June 1923, both dates inclusive.
b). The force under the command of Colonel Commandant H.T. Dobbin, DSO, between 27 March 1923 and 28 April 1923, both dates inclusive.
Iraq
Awarded for service in Iraq. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Served at Ramadi, or north of a line drawn east and west through Ramadi between 10 December 1919 and 13 June 1920, both dates inclusive, or
II). Were present on the establish-ment of a unit or formation within the boundaries of Iraq between 1 July 1920 and 17 November 1920, both dates inclusive.
N.W. Persia
Awarded for service with 'Norper-force', and also to those who participated in operations on the Lines of Communication from Quraitiu, who served west of a line drawn north and south through Teheran between 10 August 1920 and 31 December 1920, both dates inclusive.
Southern Desert Iraq
Awarded for service against the Akhwan in the Southern Desert Iraq. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Served under the command of Air Commodore T.C.R. Higgins, CB, CMG, Royal Air Force, between 8 and 22 January 1928, both dates inclusive, or
II). Served under the command of Wing Commander E.R.C. Nanson, CBE, DSC, AFC, Royal Air Force, between 22 January 1928 and 31 June 1928, both dates inclusive.
North Kurdistan
Awarded for service with the Iraqi Forces and participated in actions against Sheikh Ahmed of Barzan, in Northern Kurdistan between 15 March and 21 June 1932, both dates inclusive within the area of Diana-Erbil-Aqra-Suri, due north to the Turkish frontier along the Turkish frontier to a point due north of Diana-Diana, all places inclusive.
Palestine
Awarded for service within the geographical limits of Palestine and/or Trans-Jordan, between 19 April 1936 and 3 September 1939, both dates inclusive. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Personnel of the Army who served on the establishment of a unit or formation within the prescribed area.
II). Personnel of the Trans-Jordan Frontier Force and of the British Section of the Palestine Police Force.
III). Other members of the Palestine Police Force recommended by the High Commissioner and the General Officer Commanding British Forces in Palestine and Trans-Jordan in consultation.
IV). British officers of the Civil Service recommended by the High Commissioner and the General Officer Commanding British Forces in Palestine and Trans-Jordan, in consultation.
S.E. Asia 1945-46
Awarded for service in South-East Asia after the Japanese surrender of 15 August 1945, for various activities such as guarding Japanese POWs and maintaining law and order.
Specifically officers (including women officers) and other ranks and auxiliaries of the British, Dominion and Colonial and Indian Forces; VAD officers and members; specially approved categories of uniformed civilians; allied nationals commissioned or enlisted into the British Forces who were on the posted strength of a unit and served in:-
I). Java or Sumatra, between 3 September 1945 and 30 November 1946, both dates inclusive.
II). French Indo-China between 3 September 1945 and 28 January 1946, both dates inclusive.
A time limit of one week was required for official visits and inspections etc, to qualify for the award.
Bomb and Mine Clearance 1945-49
Awarded for service anywhere in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland between 9 May 1945 and 31 December 1949, both dates inclusive, and were actively engaged for an aggregate period of not less than 180 days on the actual excavation down to the removal of, or final disposal of, unexploded bombs or on clearance operations inside the perimeter fencing of live minefields, on the disarming of live mines, or acting as water-jet operator.
Other duties in a unit engaged on bomb disposal or mine clearance did not count as qualifying service.
The award was also granted to Australian Army personnel employed on similar duties in the following territories:-
I). Solomon Islands (Australian Man- date and British Protectorate).
II). New Guinea (Trust Territory).
III). Papua.
Bomb and Mine Clearance 1945-56
Awarded to all those who participated in operations under similar conditions to the clasp 'Bomb and Mine Clearance 1945-49' for service between 3 September 1945 and 10 November 1956 in the following territories:-
I). Solomon Islands (Australian Man-date and British Protectorate).
II). New Guinea (Trust Territory).
III). Papua.
If an individual was already in possession of the clasp 'Bomb and Mine Clearance 1945-9' and later rendered service after 1949 the clasp 'Bomb and Mine Clearance 1945-56' was issued in substitution for the clasp that had already been awarded.
Palestine 1945-48
Awarded for service in Palestine between 27 September 1945 and 30 June 1948, both dates inclusive. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). All officers (including women officers) and other ranks and auxiliaries of the British, Commonwealth and Colonial Military Forces, who entered into operations in Palestine (i.e. service of one day or more) while on the posted strength of a unit. The qualification for official visits, inspections etc., in the army qualifying area was 30 days.
II). Military crews of ships in the Royal Army Service Corps Fleet and military personnel posted for duty in:
III). Ships of the Royal Navy employed on the Palestine Patrol against illegal immigrants, or
IV). In Merchant Navy ships employed in carrying illegal immigrants from Haifa to Cyprus.
Qualifying service afloat was 28 days.
V). British members of the Palestine Police and Palestine Civil Service who served one day or more in Palestine.
VI). Members of the specially approved civilian organisations who served one day or more with the Forces in Palestine, provided they entered the operational zone and wore the approved uniform of their organisation. (a list of twelve organisations is given).
VII). Interpreters who had service of one day or more, provided they were employed full time in purely military organisations in Palestine, were paid for from Army Funds and wore military uniforms.
VIII). Officers and other ranks of the Arab Legion who had service of one day or more in Palestine during the period 27 September 1945 to midnight 14/15 May 1948.
Malaya
Awarded for service in the Federation of Malaya between 16 June 1948 and 31 July 1960 (inclusive), and in the Colony of Singapore between 16 June 1948 and 31 January 1959 (inclusive). The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). All officers and other ranks and auxiliaries of the British Common-wealth Forces, and Colonial Military Forces who had service of one day or more on the posted strength of a unit or formation. The qualifications for official visits, inspections etc., on duty was 30 days. (A list of fourteen units is given).
II). Members of the specially approved civilian organisations who served one or more days with the Forces on land providing they wore the approved uniform of the organisation. (A list of ten organisations is given).
III). Members of the civil Police Forces who had 90 days full time service provided they were properly enlisted. (A list of six organisations is given).
IV). Enrolled members of approved civilian forces raised in Malaya, Singapore or Sarawak, who had 28 days full time service and were properly enlisted. (A list of four organisations is given).
V), Part time Forces raised locally with 720 hours aggregated operational service, the equivalent of 30 days at 24 hours each, provided individuals were formerly enrolled and their training had been prior to colour service completed and they had passed out before the beginning of qualifying service, and after passing out they must have served or been resident in the operational area for a period of at least three months. (A list of eight units is given).
Canal Zone
Awarded for service within certain specified geographical boundaries in Egypt for 30 days continuous service during the period October 1951 to October 1954. These included:-
I). Army or Royal Air Force personnel and equivalent Reserve Forces based in the Suez Canal Zone.
II). Civilians who served full time with the Army or Royal Air Force during the qualifying period provided they wore the approved uniform of their organisation.
III). Military personnel of Common-wealth or Colonial Forces subject to the approval of their respective governments.
IV). Persons of foreign nationality properly enlisted or enrolled in any of the qualifying categories described above.
Qualifying service for each of these categories will be thirty days or more continuous service in the Suez Canal Zone between 16 October 1951 and 19 October 1954.
Service at sea will not count towards the qualifying period. Nor will time spent in the Canal Zone on official visits, inspections etc. by personnel based elsewhere.
Personnel whose service was cut short due to death, wounds or disability would qualify, as those who won an award, or decoration.
This GSM was awarded some 50 years later following representation to Prime Minister Tony Blair.
Cyprus
Awarded for service against acts of terrorism during the emergency in Cyprus between 1 April 1955 and 18 April 1959, inclusive. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Officers and other ranks of the British Army who served for 120 days or more on the posted strength of a unit or formation in Cyprus.
II). Members of specially approved civilian organisations who served with the Forces on land in Cyprus and wore the approved uniform of their organisation, for 120 days. (A list of nineteen organisations is given).
III). Members of the civil Police Force including the Cyprus Fire Brigade, providing they were properly enlisted and that, before the beginning of their qualifying service, they were trained in Police work either before or after enlistment in Cyprus or elsewhere:
IV). Full time service of 120 days or more in: Regular Cyprus Police, Auxiliary Cyprus Police, Special Constables of the Cyprus Police on full time service, War Department Police Auxiliaries.
V). Part time service of not less than 822 hours of duty in any continuous period of 34 weeks, while resident in the operational area in the Special Constabulary of the Cyprus Police Force.
Near East
Awarded for service in the Middle East between 31 October and 22 December 1956.
This is the conflict often referred to as the Suez Crisis, or by its codename of 'Operation Musketeer'. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Officers and other ranks of the United Kingdom Forces who:
a). Served one day or more on the posted strength of a unit or formation ashore in Egypt, or
b). Served one day or more afloat at sea off the Egyptian coast. (A list in excess of 150 Royal Navy and Merchant vessels is given).
c). Carried out one sortie over the operational land area in Egypt as aircrew of helicopters or flew as aircrew in eligible Royal Naval or Royal Air Force aircraft.
The time qualification for official visits, inspections, etc., on duty in the operational land area in Egypt was also one day.
II). Civilians as defined below who served one day or more with the Forces in the operational area:
a). Civil Affairs Officers.
b). Foreign Office Adviser.
c). Shipping Adviser.
d). Accredited War Correspondent.
e). Civilian crews of R.A.S.C. vessels.
Arabian Peninsula
Awarded for service in and around the state of Oman between 1 January 1957 and 30 June 1960. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Officers and other ranks of the British Army, including British Army personnel seconded or attached to the Sultan of Muscat and Oman's Armed Forces, who served for 30 days or more, not necessarily continuous, in Aden Colony, the Aden Protectorate, the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman, or the Persian Gulf States while on the posted or attached strength of any unit in these theatres.
II). Members of local Armed Forces who served for 30 days in the same conditions as Army personnel.
III). Members of specially approved civilian categories, who served with the Forces on land were eligible under the same rules as for the Army, if they wore approved uniform. (A list of six organisations is given).
Brunei
Awarded for service against rebels in the State of Brunei, or in North Borneo, or Sarawak between 8 and 23 December, 1962, inclusive. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Officers and other ranks of the British and Australian Army who served for one day or more, on the posted or attached strength of any unit or formation which took part in the operations.
II). Specially approved civilians who served with the Army in the operational area and wore the approved uniform, who served for one day or more in:
a). Army Fire Service.
b). W.V.S.
III). Members of the North Borneo Police Force provided they took part in the operations against the rebels in the State of Brunei or in the Sipitang or Beaufort districts of North Borneo.
IV). Members of the Sarawak Police Force, provided they took part in the operations against rebels in the State of Brunei or in Sarawak.
 
In regards to the award of the clasp, in all cases, should the qualifying period be cut short due to injury or death, then the completed days are counted as sufficient for the award of this clasp. In addition, the award of a British Order or decoration, or being ‘Mentioned in Dispatches’, would also lead to the recipients automatic entitlement to the clasp.
 
The medal was never awarded alone. The maximum number of bars awarded to any one individual is believed to have been six.
 
NB: In all cases a single bronze oak leaf emblem was issued to be worn on the ribbon to signify that the recipient had been ‘Mentioned in Dispatches’.
 
Further relevant historical context can be found at the foot of this entry.
 
Dealer Retail Value */**
 
With South Persia clasp to British land unit
£275.00
With Kurdistan clasp to British land unit
£125.00
With Iraq clasp to British land unit
£100.00
With N.W. Persia clasp to British land unit
£125.00
With North Kurdistan clasp to British land unit
£375.00
With Palestine clasp to British land unit
£150.00
With S.E. Asia 1945-46 clasp to British land unit
£95.00
With Bomb and Mine Clearance 1945-49
£550.00
With Palestine 1945-48 clasp to British land unit
£75.00
With Malaya clasp to British land unit
£75.00
With Canal Zone clasp to British land unit
£300.00
With Cyprus clasp to British land unit
£75.00
With Near East clasp to British land unit
£95.00
With Arabian Peninsula clasp to British land unit
£95.00
With Brunei clasp to British land unit
£225.00
With South Persia clasp to R.A.F unit
£3250.00
With Kurdistan clasp to R.A.F unit
£275.00
With Iraq clasp to R.A.F unit
£225.00
With N.W. Persia clasp to R.A.F unit
£325.00
With Southern Desert Iraq clasp to R.A.F unit
£650.00
With North Kurdistan clasp to R.A.F unit
£1100.00
With Palestine clasp to R.A.F unit
£125.00
With S.E. Asia 1945-46 clasp to R.A.F unit
£95.00
With Bomb and Mine Clearance 1945-49
£395.00
With Palestine 1945-48 clasp to R.A.F unit
£65.00
With Malaya clasp to R.A.F unit
£65.00
With Canal Zone clasp to R.A.F unit
£275.00
With Cyprus clasp to R.A.F unit
£65.00
With Near East clasp to R.A.F unit
£95.00
With Arabian Peninsula clasp to R.A.F unit
£75.00
With Brunei clasp to R.A.F unit
£195.00
For valuations for non British units and medals which include 1 or more clasps, please ‘contact us’
For valuations for medals attached to an attributable group please ‘contact us’. ***
 
* It should be noted that the values quoted above reflect the average price that a medal dealer may expect to sell this medal for - please see the ‘things you should know’ web page for more details about valuing medals.
 
** The individual medal value will vary considerably based on the recipient’s details.
 
*** Due to the large number of clasps available for this medal, the value for medals which contains certain clasps will vary considerably.
 
Further Historical Context
 
This section contains information on:-
 
- The South Persia Revolt.
- The Kurdish Revolts In Iraq.
- The Iraqi Revolt Against The British.
- The British Mandate In Iraq.
- The Actions Of Norperforce In Northern Persia.
- The Ikhwan Revolt In Southern Iraq.
- The Iraqi Revolt Against The British.
- The Arab Revolt In Palestine 1936-39.
- The British Post-War Activity In South-East Asia.
- The Jewish Insurgency In Palestine.
- The Malayan Emergency.
- The Suez Canal Zone.
- The Cyprus Emergency.
- The Suez Crisis.
- The Jebel Akhdar War In Oman.
- The Brunei Revolt.
 
The South Persia Revolt - Bandar Abbas is a port city and capital of Hormozgān Province on the southern coast of Iran, on the Persian Gulf. The city occupies a strategic position on the narrow Strait of Hormuz, and is today the location of the main base of the Iranian Navy.
 
Bushehr is the capital city of Bushehr Province, Iran. It lies in a vast plain running along the coastal region on the Persian Gulf coast of southwestern Iran. It was the chief seaport of the country and is the administrative centre of its province. Its location is about 1,218 kilometres (757 mi) south of Tehran.
 
Based from Bushehr, a German diplomat named Wilhelm Wassmuss (1880 - November 29, 1931) also known as the 'Wassmuss of Persia' attempted to foment trouble for the British in the Persian Gulf in the First World War. He organised the Tangsir and Qashghâi tribes to revolt against the British in the south of the country (around Bander Abass and Bushehr).
 
During this time he lost his copy of the German Diplomatic Code Book which fell into the hands of the British and enabled Admiral Hall of the famed Room 40 to read German diplomatic communications throughout much of World War I.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Kurdish Revolts In Iraq - The Mahmud Barzanji revolts were a series of armed uprisings by Kurdish Sheykh Mahmud Barzanji against the Iraqi authority in newly conquered British Mesopotamia and later the British Mandate in Iraq.
 
Following his first insurrection in May 1919, Sheykh Mahmud was imprisoned and eventually exiled to India for a one year period. When returning, he was once again appointed a governor, but shortly revolted again declaring himself as the ruler of the Kingdom of Kurdistan.
 
The Kingdom of Kurdistan lasted from September 1922 to July 1924. With British forces greatly exceeding his in ammunition and training, the defeat finally subdued the region to central British Iraqi rule in 1924. Sheykh Mahmud retreated into mountains, and eventually reached terms with the independent Kingdom of Iraq in 1932, over his return from the underground.
 
Sheykh Mahmud revolts are considered the first chapter of the modern Iraqi-Kurdish conflict.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Iraqi Revolt Against The British - The Iraqi revolt against the British, also known as the 1920 Iraqi Revolt or Great Iraqi Revolution, started in Baghdad in the summer of 1920 with mass demonstrations by Iraqis, including protests by embittered officers from the old Ottoman army, against the British occupation of Iraq. The revolt gained momentum when it spread to the largely tribal Shia regions of the middle and lower Euphrates. Sheikh Mehdi Al-Khalissi was a prominent Shia leader of the revolt.
 
Sunni and Shia religious communities cooperated during the revolution as well as tribal communities, the urban masses, and many Iraqi officers in Syria. The objectives of the revolution were independence from British rule and creation of an Arab government. Though the revolt achieved some initial success, by the end of October 1920, the British had crushed the revolt. Although the revolt was largely over by the end of 1920, elements of it dragged on until 1922.
 
During the 1920 revolt, another anti-British rebellion took place in the north Iraq by the Kurds, who were trying to gain independence. One of the major Kurdish leaders of the Kurdish revolt was Sheikh Mahmoud Barzanji.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The British Mandate In Iraq - On 11 November 1920 Iraq became a League of Nations mandate under British control with the name 'State of Iraq'. The British established the Hashemite king, Faisal, who had been forced out of Syria by the French, as their client ruler. Likewise, British authorities selected Sunni Arab elites from the region for appointments to government and ministry office.
 
Faced with spiralling costs and influenced by the public protestations of war hero T. E. Lawrence in The Times, Britain replaced Arnold Wilson in October 1920 with new Civil Commissioner Sir Percy Cox. Cox managed to quell the rebellion, yet was also responsible for implementing the fateful policy of close cooperation with Iraq's Sunni minority. The institution of slavery was abolished in the 1920s.
 
Britain granted independence to the Kingdom of Iraq in 1932, on the urging of King Faisal, though the British retained military bases and transit rights for their forces. King Ghazi ruled as a figurehead after King Faisal's death in 1933, while undermined by attempted military coups, until his death in 1939. Ghazi was followed by his underage son, Faisal II. 'Abd al-Ilah served as Regent during Faisal's minority.
 
On 1 April 1941, Rashid Ali al-Gaylani and members of the Golden Square staged a coup d'état and overthrew the government of 'Abd al-Ilah. During the subsequent Anglo-Iraqi War, the United Kingdom invaded Iraq for fear that the Rashid Ali government might cut oil supplies to Western nations because of his links to the Axis powers. The war started on 2 May and an armistice was signed 31 May.
 
A military occupation followed the restoration of the pre-coup government of the Hashemite monarchy. The occupation ended on 26 October 1947. The rulers during the occupation and the remainder of the Hashemite monarchy were Nuri as-Said, the autocratic Prime Minister, who also ruled from 1930–1932, and 'Abd al-Ilah, the former Regent who now served as an adviser to King Faisal II.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Actions Of Norperforce In Northern Persia - Norperforce was a British military force deployed in Northern Persia in 1919. The force was commanded by Brigadier General Hugh Bateman-Champain who was based at Kasvin.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Ikhwan Revolt In Southern Iraq - The Ikhwan Revolt began in 1927, when the tribesman of the Mutayr and Ajman rebelled against the authority of Ibn Saud and engaged in cross-border raids into parts of Trans-Jordan, Iraq and Kuwait.
 
The relationship between the House of Saud and the Ikhwan deteriorated into an open bloody feud in December 1928. The main instigators of the rebellion were defeated in the Battle of Sabilla, on 29 March 1929.
 
Ikhwan tribesmen and troops loyal to Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud clashed again in the Jabal Shammar region in August 1929,and Ikhwan tribesmen attacked the Awazim tribe on October 5, 1929. Faisal al-Dawish, the main leader of the rebellion and the Mutair tribe, fled to Kuwait in October 1929 before being detained by the British and handed over to Ibn Saud.
 
Faisal Al-Dawish would die in Riyadh on the 3 October 1931 from what appears to have been a heart condition. Government troops had finally suppressed the rebellion on January 10, 1930, when other Ikhwan rebel leaders surrendered to the British.
 
In the aftermath, the Ikhwan leadership was slain, and the remains were eventually incorporated into regular Saudi units. Sultan bin Bajad, one of the three main Ikhwan leaders, was killed in 1931, while al-Dawish died in prison in Riyadh on October 3, 1931
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Iraqi Revolt Against The British - The Iraqi revolt against the British, also known as the 1920 Iraqi Revolt or Great Iraqi Revolution, started in Baghdad in the summer of 1920 with mass demonstrations by Iraqis, including protests by embittered officers from the old Ottoman army, against the British occupation of Iraq. The revolt gained momentum when it spread to the largely tribal Shia regions of the middle and lower Euphrates. Sheikh Mehdi Al-Khalissi was a prominent Shia leader of the revolt.
 
Sunni and Shia religious communities cooperated during the revolution as well as tribal communities, the urban masses, and many Iraqi officers in Syria. The objectives of the revolution were independence from British rule and creation of an Arab government. Though the revolt achieved some initial success, by the end of October 1920, the British had crushed the revolt. Although the revolt was largely over by the end of 1920, elements of it dragged on until 1922.
 
During the 1920 revolt, another anti-British rebellion took place in the north Iraq by the Kurds, who were trying to gain independence. One of the major Kurdish leaders of the Kurdish revolt was Sheikh Mahmoud Barzanji.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Arab Revolt In Palestine 1936-39 - The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against British colonial rule, as a demand for independence and opposition to mass Jewish immigration.
 
The revolt consisted of two distinct phases. The first phase was directed primarily by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee (HAC) and was focused mainly on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy (involving the rulers of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan and Yemen) and the threat of martial law.
 
The second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement that increasingly targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt.
 
According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged and 961 died because of gang and terrorist activities. In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of terrorism, and 14,760 wounded.
 
Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred. Although the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was unsuccessful, its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war.
 
It made the British Mandate give a crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah whereas on the local Palestinian Arab side the revolt forced the fleeing into exile of the main local Palestinian Arab leader of the period as the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Haj Amin al-Husseini.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The British Post-War Activity In South-East Asia - After the Japanese surrender of 15 August 1945, large numbers of Japanese forces were left in positions of occupation, particularly in Java, Sumatra and French Indo-China. In the absence of an Allied occupation force, the Japanese forces retained responsibility for policing and security activities.
 
Gradually, these Japanese forces were relieved by Allied forces and taken in to captivity as POW's before repatriation to Japan and the territories involved could be handed over to their former colonial powers.
 
Jewish Insurgency In Palestine - Jewish insurgency in Palestine refers to violent campaigns carried out by Jewish underground groups against the British forces and officials in Mandatory Palestine between 1939 and 1947.
 
The tensions between Jewish militant underground organizations and the British mandatory authorities rose from 1938 and intensified with the publication of the MacDonald White Paper of 1939, which proposed restrictions on Jewish immigration and independence for Palestine with an Arab majority after ten years.
 
Though World War II brought relative calm, the tensions again escalated into an armed struggle towards the end of the war, when it became clear that the Axis Powers were close to defeat. The struggle lasted until the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.
 
The armed conflict escalated during the final phase of the World War II, when Irgun declared a revolt in February 1944, ending the hiatus in operations it had begun in 1940.
 
Starting from the assassination of Lord Moyne in 1944, the Haganah actively opposed the Irgun and Lehi, in a period of inter-Jewish fighting known as the The Hunting Season. However, in autumn 1945, after the end of the war the Haganah began a period of co-operation with the two other underground organizations, forming the Jewish Resistance Movement.
 
The Haganah refrained from direct confrontation with British forces, and concentrated its efforts on attacking British immigration control, while Irgun and Lehi attacked military and police targets. The Resistance Movement dissolved in recriminations in July 1946 following the King David Hotel bombing, with Irgun and Lehi going their own way, while the main underground militia Haganah acted mainly in supporting Jewish immigration to Mandatory Palestine.
 
The conflict lasted until the UN partition plan, on 29 November 1947, after which the civil war between Palestinian Jews and Arabs eclipsed the previous tensions of both with the British.
 
Within Britain there were deep divisions over Palestine policy. Dozens of British soldiers, Jewish militants and civilians died during the insurgency campaign. The conflict led to heightened antisemitism in the UK and, in August 1947, after the hanging of two abducted British sergeants, to widespread anti-Jewish rioting across the UK.
 
The conflict caused tensions in Britain's relationship with the United States.
 
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The Malayan Emergency - The Malayan Emergency was a guerrilla war fought between Commonwealth armed forces and the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), the military arm of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP), from 1948 to 1960.
 
The Malayan Emergency was the colonial government's term for the conflict. The MNLA termed it the Anti-British National Liberation War. The rubber plantations and tin mining industries had pushed for the use of the term 'emergency' since their losses would not have been covered by Lloyd's insurers if it had been termed a 'war'.
 
Despite the communists' defeat in 1960, communist leader Chin Peng renewed the insurgency in 1967; it lasted until 1989, and became known as the Communist Insurgency War.
 
Although Australian and British armed forces had fully withdrawn from Malaysia years earlier, the insurgency still failed.
 
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The Suez Canal Zone - The Convention of Constantinople in 1888 declared the canal a neutral zone under the protection of the British, who had occupied Egypt and Sudan at the request of Khedive Tewfiq to suppress the Urabi Revolt against his rule.
 
They were later to defend the strategically important passage against a major Ottoman attack in 1915, during the First World War. Under the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, the UK retained control over the canal. In 1951 Egypt repudiated the treaty, and in October 1954 the UK agreed to remove its troops. Withdrawal was completed on 18 July 1956.
 
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The Cyprus Emergency - The Cyprus Emergency was a military action that took place in Cyprus primarily consisting of a terrorist campaign by EOKA to remove the British from Cyprus so it could be reunified with Greece. It led to Cyprus being granted independence in 1960.
 
In 1954 Britain announced its intention to transfer its Suez military headquarters to Cyprus. The terrorist campaign began on 1 April 1955. After a series of follow up incidents, the Governor General Sir John Harding declared a state of emergency on 26 November of that year.
 
The British encountered great difficulty obtaining effective intelligence on EOKA as the majority of the Greek Cypriot population supported and/or feared them. They were also hampered by a drain on manpower caused by the Suez Crisis and Malayan Emergency.
 
Towards the end of the 1950s the British enjoyed more success. Cyprus became an independent republic in 1960 with Britain retaining control of two Sovereign Base Areas, at Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
 
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The Suez Crisis - The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, or Second Arab-Israeli War was a diplomatic and military confrontation in late 1956 between Egypt on one side, and Britain, France and Israel on the other, with the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Nations playing major roles in forcing Britain, France and Israel to withdraw.
 
The attack followed the President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser's decision of 26 July 1956 to nationalize the Suez Canal, after the withdrawal of an offer by Britain and the United States to fund the building of the Aswan Dam, which was in response to Egypt's new ties with the Soviet Union and recognizing the People's Republic of China during the height of tensions between China and Taiwan.
 
The aims of the attack were primarily to regain Western control of the canal and to remove Nasser from power, and the crisis highlighted the danger that Arab nationalism posed to Western access to Middle East oil.
 
Less than a day after Israel invaded Egypt, Britain and France issued a joint ultimatum to Egypt and Israel, and then began to bomb Cairo. Despite the denials of the Israeli, British, and French governments, allegations began to emerge that the invasion of Egypt had been planned beforehand by the three powers.
 
Anglo-French forces withdrew before the end of the year, but Israeli forces remained until March 1957, prolonging the crisis. In April, the canal was fully reopened to shipping, but other repercussions followed.
 
The three allies, especially Israel, were mainly successful in attaining their immediate military objectives, but pressure from the United States and the USSR at the United Nations and elsewhere forced them to withdraw.
 
As a result of the outside pressure Britain and France failed in their political and strategic aims of controlling the canal and removing Nasser from power. Israel fulfilled some of its objectives, such as attaining freedom of navigation through the Straits of Tiran.
 
As a result of the conflict, the UNEF would police the Egyptian–Israeli border to prevent both sides from recommencing hostilities.
 
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The Jebel Akhdar War In Oman - In December 1955, Sultan Said bin Taimur of Muscat and Oman in a disagreement about land and associated oil rights, sent troops of the Muscat and Oman Field Force to occupy the main centres in Oman after Imam Ghalib bin Ali (along with his younger brother Talib bin Ali Al Hinai), led the Imamate of Oman in the Jebel Akhdar War against Sultan Said bin Taimur's with attacks on his lands.
 
In July 1957, the Sultan's forces were withdrawing, but they were repeatedly ambushed, sustaining heavy casualties. Sultan Said bin Taimur, however, with the intervention of infantry (two companies of the Cameronians) and armoured car detachments from the British Army and aircraft of the RAF was able to suppress the rebellion. Talib's forces retreated to the inaccessible Jebel Akhdar.
 
Colonel David Smiley, who had been seconded to organize the Sultan's Armed Forces, managed to isolate the mountain in autumn 1958 and found a route to the plateau from Wadi Bani Kharu.
 
On 27 January 1959, they occupied the mountain in a surprise operation. Ghalib, Talib and Sulaiman managed to escape to Saudi Arabia, where the imamate's cause was promoted until the 1970s. The Treaty of Seeb was terminated and the autonomous Imamate of Oman abolished giving way to the present day Sultanate.
 
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The Brunei Revolt - The Brunei Revolt broke out on 8 December 1962. The TNKU rebels began co-ordinated attacks on the oil town of Seria (targeting the Royal Dutch Shell oil installations) and on police stations and government facilities around the protectorate.
 
The revolt began to break down within its first hours of operation, having failed to achieve key objectives such as the capture of Brunei town and the Sultan.
 
The revolt is seen as one of the first stages of the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation.
 
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