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General Service Medal 1962-2007

Conflict
 
General Service 1962 - 2007.
 
Further relevant historical context can be found at the foot of this entry.
 
History
 
The General Service Medal (also known as the Campaign Service Medal) was a British Commonwealth campaign medal presented to those who participated in operations for which no other separate medal was intended. The medal was instituted in 1964 to combine the General Service Medal (1918), and awarded to the Army and RAF, and the Naval General Service Medal (1915).
 
The 1962 General Service Medal was awarded until 2007, when it was in turn replaced by the Operational Service Medal.
 
Description
 
The medal is circular, 36mm in diameter and was struck in silver. The obverse of this medal bears the crowned effigy of Queen Elizabeth II, with the inscription; ‘ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA F.D.’ (meaning Elizabeth II, by the grace of God, Queen and Defender of the Faith).
 
The reverse contains the inscription; ‘FOR CAMPAIGN SERVICE' under a crown, all surrounded by a wreath of oak leaves.
 
The ribbon suspender is of the ornate and swiveling style used with the previous (Army and Air Force) General Service Medal and is attached by a floral mount which is riveted to the medal.
 
The recipient's details can be found on the medal's rim impressed in small capital letters.
 
Ribbon
 
 
The ribbon is 32mm wide and is purple in colour with a narrow dark green stripe along either edge. These are the same colours as the General Service Medal 1918-62, but arranged in different proportions.
 
Bars/Clasps
 
This medal was issued with the following clasps:-
 
Borneo
Awarded for service against Indonesian insurgents in what was then known as North Borneo, under the command of Major-General Walter Walker between 24 December 1962 and 11 August 1964.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
For naval operations:
I). Service afloat for an aggregate of 30 days in ships or craft operating on the waters of Sabah, Sarawak or Brunei, or off the coasts in support of shore operations.
II). One sortie or more as a member of an aircraft crew in support of operations ashore.
III). 30 days or more service ashore when posted to units operating in the above areas.
For land operations:
I). 30 days or more service, not necessarily continuous, in the above areas.
For air operations:
I). 30 days or more, not necessarily continuous, in the areas mentioned whether serving in the Royal Air Force or any unit of HM Forces.
II). One sortie or moreover the areas mentioned when in direct support of operations.
Major General Walker eventually established a British and Common-wealth force, which came to dominate the border area and eventually defeated the persistent incursions into the region.
This conflict claimed the lives of 114 Commonwealth personnel with 180 wounded.
Radfan
Awarded for service against the Egyptian and Yemeni backed Radfan tribesmen between 25 April and 31 July 1964.
The qualifying service for this award was initially for a continuous period of 30 days or more in the Radfan Mountains.
Three years later, the clasp was authorised for all troops who took part in these operations including those in a supporting role in Aden itself.
South Arabia
Awarded for service against Egyptian-inspired attempts to end the British presence in Aden and end the embryonic Federation of South Arabia.
This three year-long campaign saw numerous terrorist attacks on both civilian and military targets.
The qualifying service for this award was 30 days service in the Federation of South Arabia between 1 August 1964 and 30 November 1967.
During that time, in both Radfan and Aden, the British Army suffered 90 personnel killed and 510 wounded.
Malay Peninsula
Awarded for service in Malaysia against Indonesian forces following a decision in 1964 by the Indonesian President to attack the Malaysian mainland.
This campaign was an extension of the conflict in Borneo where British and Malaysian troops were operating against Indonesian insurgents.
In 1964, Indonesian Parachute landings were made in Johore while other troops managed to land across the Malacca Straits from Indonesian Sumatra.
It was for operations in Malaysia and surrounding waters against these troops that this clasps was instituted, as opposed to the concurrent Borneo operations.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
For naval operations:
I). Service of 30 days or more afloat while in any Royal Navy, Royal Australian Navy, Royal New Zealand Navy or Army Department vessel on duty in the waters surrounding the Malay Peninsula/Singapore between 17 August 1964 and 12 June 1965 (inclusive).
II). Service in any Royal Navy, Royal Australian Navy, Royal New Zealand Navy vessel on patrol duties between 13 June 1965 and 11 August 1966 (inclusive) also reckoned as qualifying service
This service could be aggregated with qualifying service on land (see above) to complete the required period of 30 days.
For land operations:
I). Service of 30 days or more, not necessarily continuous, on land in the Malay Peninsula/Singapore between 17 August 1964 and 12 June 1965 (inclusive), whilst on the posted or attached strength of any unit or formation in these areas.
For air operations:
I). Completion of 30 or more sorties by aircraft crew of HM Forces engaged on operational patrols over waters surrounding the Malay Peninsula /Singapore between 13 June 1965 and 11 August 1966 (inclusive), also reckoned as qualifying service; each patrol could count as one days qualifying services and could be aggregated with qualifying service on land and sea as above to complete the required period of 30 days.
South Vietnam
Awarded for service in defence of the Republic of Vietnam from 24 December 1962 and to a date that was - at that time - to be determined.
Between 1963 and 1965, at least 68 members of the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam and 232 members of the RAAF Transport Flight Vietnam qualified for the clasp.
However, a decision of 1966 relating to the institution and award of the Vietnam Medal led to the stripping of the award from the RAAF personnel.
A Royal Warrant dated June 1968 retrospectively changed the qualifying service for this award to:-
I). Operations in the Republic of Vietnam between 24 December 1962 and 29 May 1964, or
II). 30 days service in ships operating in inland waters or off the Vietnamese coast, or
III). One day in the service of a land unit, or one operational sortie, or 30 days' service on an official visit.
For service after 29 May 1964, personnel were awarded the Vietnam Medal, consequently, only 68 clasps were issued, and all 68 went to the Australian Army Training Team (Vietnam) members.
Northern Ireland
Awarded for service in Northern Ireland during what was called ‘The Troubles’. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Service of 30 days or more, not necessarily continuous, in Northern Ireland from 14 August 1969, while on the posted or attached strength of any Regular Naval, Military or Air Force unit or formation in that area, excluding recruits and junior soldiers under training.
II). Service of 30 days or more, not necessarily continuous, in Northern Ireland from 14 August 1969, as a member of the Ulster Defence Regiment or Services Reserve Forces, on call out for permanent or emergency service in that area.
III). Service of 30 days or more afloat, not necessarily continuous, whilst in the Royal Navy or an Army Department vessel on duty in the waters adjacent to Northern Ireland in support of the Land Forces from 14 August 1969.
Such service may, if necessary, be aggregated with service in land to complete the required 30 days.
Dhofar
Awarded for service against mountain tribesmen in Dhofar a province of Oman, who, in 1965, rose in revolt against the regime of Sultan Sa'ib bin Taimur.
Following years of unrest the Sultan's son staged a coup in 1970 and subsequently requested British assistance against the rebels.
The British Special Air Service (SAS) provided training for his local forces and Royal Engineers provided military and civil engineering while RAF officers provided the backbone of the new Sultan's air force.
In addition to these contributions, many British officers were seconded to the Sultan's Armed Forces. As well as the British contribution, Jordan and Iran also provided assistance.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Service of 30 days or more, not necessarily continuous, in the Dhofar province of Oman 1 October 1969 - 30 September 1976 while on the posted or attached strength of a unit or a formation of HM forces in the area.
II). 30 or more flights into Salalah airfield in support of operations at a rate of not more than one landing per day during the qualifying period as members of British Service transports or detachments.
III). Service of 30 days or more afloat, not necessarily continuous, while posted to a British Service vessel operating in Oman territorial waters, adjacent to the province of Dhofar in direct support of operations in the Dhofar campaign, 1 October 1969 – 30 September 1976.
Such service may, if necessary, be aggregated with service on land to complete the required period of 30 days.
During this period, the British forces suffered 24 killed and 55 wounded.
Lebanon
Awarded for service in Lebanon following the Israeli invasion of 1982 which had the objective of removing PLO bases from which attacks on Israel were being launched.
Following the invasion, Israeli forces moved north towards Lebanon's capital Beirut. However, they quickly became embroiled in the local Lebanese politics. By October 1982, a US-inspired multinational peace-keeping force had been sent into Beirut. It was composed of troops from US, France, Italy and UK.
Though all the other contingents suffered casualties (241 US Marines in one attack and 58 French troops in another suicide attack), the British troops carried out their assignments with no loss of life.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Accumulated service of 30 days or more, not necessarily continuous, within the territory of Lebanon and its territorial waters between 7 February 1983 and 9 March 1984 (inclusive), whilst on the posted or attached strength of any unit or formation in these areas.
However, as the multinational peace-keeping force became increasingly the focus of hostile action by the various factions in Lebanon, it was withdrawn during February - March 1984.
Mine Clearance
Awarded for service in the Gulf of Suez between 15 August and 15 October 1984 while undertaking mine clearance operations.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Accumulated period of 30 days or more in the designated areas of operation within the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez.
The operation was brought about by the need to clear what was thought to be previously undetected World War II era mines from shipping lanes, although it was later thought that the mines were laid by terrorists funded by Libya.
Gulf
Awarded for service in the Persian Gulf between 17 November 1986 and 28 February 1989 while undertaking mine counter-measures operations
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Between 17 November 1986 and 31 October 1988 (inclusive): sea service of 30 days or more, not necessarily continuous, in that area defined as the waters of the Gulf and of the Gulf of Oman north and west of Ras Al Hadd, whilst:
a). On duty in a vessel of the Royal Navy and/or Royal Fleet Auxiliary, and/or
b). In the case of Royal Navy personnel, on duty in a vessel of the Royal Netherlands Navy and/or Belgian Navy mine clearance forces.
II). Between 1 November 1988 and 28 February 1989 (inclusive): service of 30 days or more not necessarily continuous, within that area defined as the waters of the Gulf, whilst at sea:
a). On duty in a Mines Counter Measure Vessel of the Royal Navy and/or, in the case of Royal Navy personnel, a Mines Counter-Measures Vessel of the Royal Netherlands Navy and/or Belgian Navy, when engaged in the conduct of Mines Counter-Measure operations, and/or
b). On duty in a vessel of the Royal Navy when engaged in providing protection to Mines Counter-Measures Vessels during the conduct of a Mines Counter-Measure operation, and/or
c). On duty in a vessel of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary when engaged in providing direct support to Mines Counter-Measures Vessels during the conduct of Mines Counter-Measure operations.
Kuwait
Awarded for service in Kuwait and the Northern parts of the Persian Gulf between 8 March and 30 September 1991 following the conclusion of the Gulf War.
These activities were mainly to undertake ‘clear-up’ operations. The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Service of 30 days or more continuously in Kuwait, and its territorial waters, and the Northern Gulf north of 28 ̊ 30’N and west of 49 ̊ 30’E between 8 March and 30 September 1991.
II). Individuals who had less than 30 days qualifying service towards the Gulf Medal 1990-91 before 7 March 1991, and who therefore did not qualify for that medal, may count that service towards qualification for the clasp ‘Kuwait’.
There may be a gap between 7 March 1991 and deployment in Kuwait and the Northern Gulf, but each period of qualifying service must be continuous.
Those eligible for the clasp include Regular and Reserve members of all four services; Commonwealth Forces; Foreign Service Personnel; and United Kingdom based civilians who served between the dates and in the areas or ships specified below:
a). British Forces Middle East (Forward) until 25 May 1991 and British Forces Kuwait until 30 September 1991.
b). Mine Counter-Measures Group 8B, 8 March to 1 August 1991.
c). 21 Explosive Ordinance Disposal Squadron Group Royal Engineers deployed on ‘Operation Pinseeker’ in Kuwait between 30 April and 30 September 1991.
d). Members of the logistic Support Group in Kuwait between 8 March and 27 July 1991.
e). Exchange personnel serving with coalition force units committed to Mine Counter-Measure Operations between 8 March and 27 July 1991.
f). United Kingdom based members of the Civil Service serving with HM Forces in the above specified areas or ships between the stated dates.
N. Iraq & S. Turkey
Awarded for service in Northern Iraq or Southern Turkey between 6 April 1991 and 17 July 1991 providing protection for the Kurds who had previously rebelled against the Iraqi regime after the end of the Gulf War.
The rebellion had been crushed by the Iraqi authorities, causing thousands of Kurds to seek refuge in the hills of northern Iraq and southern Turkey.
Consequently, the United Nations declared a ‘safe haven’ and forces were deployed to provide protection for the Kurds.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Regular or Reserve members of all four services committed to the United States’ Operation Provide Comfort; and/or British Operation Haven. Both operations were for the relief and protection of Kurds in Northern Iraq.
II). Loan Service personnel serving with coalition units committed on Operation Provide Comfort.
III). Regular and Reserve members of Commonwealth Forces attached to British Forces on Operation Haven.
IV). Multinational Service personnel serving with units on Operation Haven, except Dutch personnel who have been granted their own medal.
V). Overseas Development Admin-istration civil advisers.
VI). United Kingdom based Civil Servants serving with British Forces in the above specified areas.
VII). Ministry of Defence accredited artists.
VIII). Royal Fleet Auxiliary and any other organisation which served directly with British Forces between the above specified dates and in the specified areas.
Air Operations Iraq
Awarded for service in Iraq predominantly to RAF personnel and some members of the Army (mainly Royal Engineers and attached personnel) for patrolling the no fly zones and undertaking airfield repair operations in Iraq.
It was also awarded to Royal Navy personnel patrolling the northern Persian Gulf between July 1991 and April 2003. Additionally it was awarded to members of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary who served on the Arabian Gulf Ready Tanker during above dates.
The qualifying service for this award was as follows:-
I). Service of 60 days or more continuously, or 90 days or more aggregated service on the posted strength of units on, or in support of, air operations over Iraq detached to Incerlik (Turkey), Cyprus, Ridadh, Dharhran, Al Kharj and Bahrain.
II). Six operational air sorties flying in Iraqi airspace commencing either on or after 27 August 1992 for Operation Jural.
III). Tanker aircrew flying missions in support of Operations Warden and Jural but who did not fly in Iraqi airspace were eligible if they had the qualifying service set out at i. above
Eligible personnel were:
a). Regular or Reserve members of all four services on the posted or attached strength of any unit or formation committed to operations Warden or Jural, both for the protection of ethnic minorities in Iraq.
b). Loan Service and Exchange personnel serving with coalition units committed to the above named operations.
c). Regular or Reserve members of Commonwealth Forces on the posted or attached strength of units on the same operations.
d). Multinational Regular and Reserve Service personnel serving with units on the same operations.
e). Overseas Development Admin-istration civil advisers.
f). United Kingdom based members of the Civil Service serving with HM Forces with units on the same operations.
g). Ministry of Defence accredited artists.
h). Civilian members of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary, and of any other such organisation as may be determined, who served directly with units of HM Forces engaged on the same operations. 
 
In regards to the award of the clasp, in all cases, should the qualifying period be cut short due to injury or death, then the completed days are counted as sufficient for the award of this clasp.
 
In addition, the award of a British Order or decoration, or being ‘Mentioned in Dispatches’, would also lead to the recipients automatic entitlement to the clasp.
 
The medal was never awarded alone. The maximum number of bars awarded to any one individual is believed to have been six.
 
NB: In all cases a single bronze oak leaf emblem was issued to be worn on the ribbon to signify that the recipient had been ‘Mentioned in Dispatches’.
 
Further relevant historical context can be found at the foot of this entry.
 
Dealer Retail Value */**
 
With Borneo clasp
£85.00
With Radfan clasp
£100.00
With South Arabia clasp
£85.00
With Malay Peninsula clasp
£85.00
With South Vietnam clasp
£3000.00
With Northern Ireland clasp
£85.00
With Dhofar clasp
£195.00
With Lebanon clasp
£850.00
With Mine Clearance clasp
£1700.00
With Gulf clasp
£260.00
With Kuwait clasp
£425.00
With N. Iraq & S. Turkey clasp
£395.00
With Air Operations Iraq clasp
£395.00
For valuations for medals which include 1 or more clasps, please ‘contact us’. ***
For valuations for medals attached to an attributable group please ‘contact us’.
 
* It should be noted that the values quoted above reflect the average price that a medal dealer may expect to sell this medal for - please see the ‘things you should know’ web page for more details about valuing medals.
 
** The individual medal value will vary considerably based on the recipient’s details.
 
*** Due to the large number of clasps available for this medal, the value for medals which contains certain clasps will vary considerably.
 
Further Historical Context
 
This section contains information on:-
 
- The North Borneo Protectorate.
- The Aden Emergency.
- The Indonesian-Malaysian Confrontation.
- The Australian Army Training Team Vietnam.
- British Forces In Northern Ireland.
- The Dhofar Rebellion.
- The Multinational Force In Lebanon
- British Forces In The Gulf War.
- British Forces In Northern Iraq.
- The Iraqi No-fly Zones.
 
The North Borneo Protectorate - North Borneo was a British protectorate under the sovereign North Borneo Chartered Company from 1882 to 1941. From 1942 to 1945, North Borneo was occupied by Japanese military forces, before they were driven out by Australian troops. From 1946 to 1963, North Borneo was a Crown Colony of Great Britain, known in this time as British North Borneo.
 
Located in the north-eastern part of Borneo, it is now part of Malaysia as the state of Sabah, apart from the island group of Labuan which was separated from the rest in 1984 to form a Federal Territory, administered directly from the federal government.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Aden Emergency - The Aden Emergency was an insurgency against the British Crown forces in the British controlled territories of South Arabia which now form part of the Yemen.
 
Partly inspired by Nasser's pan Arab nationalism, it began on 10 December 1963 with the throwing of a grenade at a gathering of British officials at Aden Airport. A state of emergency was then declared in the British Crown colony of Aden and its hinterland, the Aden Protectorate.
 
The emergency escalated in 1967 and hastened the end of British rule in the territory which had begun in 1839. On 30 November 1967, British forces withdrew and the independent People's Republic of South Yemen was proclaimed.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Indonesian-Malaysian Confrontation - The Indonesian–Malaysian Confrontation during 1963-1966 was Indonesia's political and armed opposition to the creation of Malaysia. It is also known by its Indonesian/Malay name Konfrontasi. The creation of Malaysia was the amalgamation of the Federation of Malaya (now West Malaysia), Singapore and the crown colony/British protectorates of Sabah and Sarawak (collectively known as British Borneo, now East Malaysia) in September 1963.
 
The confrontation was an undeclared war with most of the action occurring in the border area between Indonesia and East Malaysia on the island of Borneo (known as Kalimantan in Indonesia). The conflict was characterized by restrained and isolated ground combat, set within tactics of low-level brinkmanship. Combat was usually conducted by company or platoon sized operations on either side of the border.
 
The conflict is sometimes informally referred to as the 'Platoon Commander's War', at least before the start of Claret operations. Indonesia's campaign of infiltrations into Borneo sought to exploit the ethnic and religious diversity in Sabah and Sarawak compared to that of Malaya and Singapore, with the intent of unravelling the proposed state of Malaysia.
 
The challenging jungle terrain of Borneo and lack of roads straddling the Malaysia/Indonesia border forced both Indonesian and Commonwealth forces to conduct long foot patrols. Both sides relied on light infantry operations and air transport, although Commonwealth forces enjoyed the advantage of better helicopter deployment and resupply to forward operating bases. Rivers were also used as a method of transport and infiltration. Although combat operations were primarily conducted by ground forces, aerial forces played a vital support role and naval forces ensured the security of the sea flanks.
 
The British provided most of the defensive effort, although Malaysian forces steadily increased their contributions, and there were periodic contributions from Australian and New Zealander forces within the combined Far East Strategic Reserve stationed then in West Malaysia and Singapore.
 
Initial Indonesian attacks into East Malaysia relied heavily on local volunteers trained by the Indonesian Army. With the passage of time infiltration forces became more organised with the inclusion of a larger component of Indonesian forces. To deter and disrupt Indonesia's growing campaign of infiltrations, the British responded in 1964 by launching their own covert operations into Indonesian Kalimantan under the code name Operation Claret. Coinciding with Sukarno announcing a 'year of dangerous living' and 1964 race riots in Singapore, Indonesia launched on 17 August 1964 an expanded campaign of operations into West Malaysia, albeit without military success.
 
A build-up of Indonesian forces on the Kalimantan border in December 1964 saw the UK commit significant forces from the UK based Army Strategic Command and Australia and New Zealand deployed combat forces from West Malaysia to Borneo in 1965-6. The intensity of the conflict began to subside following the events of the 30 September Movement and Suharto's rise to power. A new round of peace negotiations between Indonesia and Malaysia began in May 1966 and a final peace agreement was signed on 11 August 1966 with Indonesia formally recognising Malaysia.
 
Important precursors to the conflict included Indonesia's campaign of infiltrations into Netherlands New Guinea from March–August 1962 and the Brunei Revolt in December 1962.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Australian Army Training Team Vietnam - While assisting the British during the Malayan Emergency, Australian and New Zealand military forces had gained valuable experience in jungle warfare and counter-insurgency. According to historian Paul Ham, the US Secretary of State, Dean Rusk, ‘freely admitted to the ANZUS meeting in Canberra in May 1962, that the US armed forces knew little about jungle warfare’.
 
Given the experience that Australian forces had gained in Malaya it was felt that initially Australia could contribute to the situation by providing advisors who were experts in the tactics of jungle warfare. In this regard the Australian government's initial response was to send 30 military advisers, dispatched as the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam (AATTV), also known as ‘the Team’.
 
The Australian military assistance was to be in jungle warfare training, and the Team comprised highly qualified and experienced officers and NCOs, led by Colonel Ted Serong, many with previous experience from the Malayan Emergency. Their arrival in South Vietnam during July and August 1962 was the beginning of Australia's involvement in the war in Vietnam.
 
Relationships between the AATTV and US advisors were generally very cordial. However, there were sometimes significant differences of opinion on the training and tactics that should be employed. For example, when Serong expressed doubt about the value of the Strategic Hamlet Program at a US counter Insurgency Group meeting in Washington on 23 May 1963, he drew a ‘violent challenge’ from US Marine General Victor ‘Brute’ Krulak.
 
Captain Barry Petersen's work with raising an anti-communist Montagnard force in the central highlands between 1963 and 1965 highlighted another problem-South Vietnamese officials sometimes found sustained success by a foreigner difficult to accept. Warrant Officer Class Two Kevin Conway of the AATTV, was killed on 6 July 1964, side by side with Master Sergeant Gabriel Alamo of the USSF, during a sustained Viet Cong attack on Nam Dong Special Forces Camp, becoming Australia's first battle casualty.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
British Forces In Northern Ireland - ‘Operation Banner’ was the operational name for the British Armed Forces' operation in Northern Ireland from August 1969 to July 2007. It was initially deployed at the request of the unionist government of Northern Ireland to support the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). After the 1998 Belfast Agreement, the operation was gradually scaled down. Its role was to assert the authority of the Government of the United Kingdom in Northern Ireland.
 
The main opposition to the British military's deployment came from the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA). It waged a guerrilla campaign against the British military from 1970 to 1997. An internal British Army document released in 2007 stated that, whilst the Army had failed to defeat the IRA, it had made it impossible for the IRA to win through violence, and had also reduced substantially the death toll in the last years of conflict.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Dhofar Rebellion - The Dhofar Rebellion was launched in the province of Dhofar against the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman, which had British support, from 1962 to 1976.
 
It ended with the defeat of the rebels, but the state of Oman had to be radically reformed and modernized to cope with the campaign.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Multinational Force In Lebanon - The Multinational Force in Lebanon (also MNF) was an international peacekeeping force created in 1982, after the demand was made by Lebanon to the UN's secretary general, and initially to oversee the withdrawal of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
 
The participants included contingents of United States Marines and Navy SEALs, units of the French 11th Parachute Brigade, the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment, the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment, the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment, other units of the French Foreign Legion, Italian, and British soldiers. The force was dissolved in March 1984, soon after the October 1983 Beirut barracks bombing.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
British Forces In The Gulf War - 'Operation Granby' was the name given to the British military operations during the 1991 Gulf War. 53,462 troops were deployed during the conflict.
 
The total cost of operations was £2.434 billion (1992) of which at least £2.049 billion was paid for by other nations such as Kuwait and Saudi Arabia; £200 million of equipment was lost or written off.
 
'Operation Granby' took its name from John Manners, Marquis of Granby a British commander in the Seven Years' War.
 
The Joint Commander Gulf Forces (based in the United Kingdom at RAF High Wycombe) was Air Chief Marshal Sir Patrick Hine 1 October 1990-31 March 1991, and Air Chief Marshal Sir Michael Grayson from 31 March 1991.
 
His political adviser was Andrew Palmer. The Commander British Forces Middle East, the in-theatre commander (based in Riyadh), was initially Air Vice Marshal Andrew Wilson (September-October 1990), then Lieutenant-General Sir Peter de la Billière 6 October 1990-March 1991, and Air Commodore Ian Macfadyen from March 1991.
 
The Air Commander British Forces Middle East (initially Arabian Peninsula) was Air Vice Marshal Andrew Wilson from August to 17 November 1990 then Air Vice Marshal William (Bill) Wratten from 17 November 1990.
 
The Senior British Naval Officer Middle East was Captain Anthony McEwen, Royal Navy until September 1990 (on HMS York), then Commodore Paul Haddocks September to December 1990. Finally Commodore Christopher Craig, on HMS Brave and HMS London, was in command from 3 December 1990 to March 1991.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Iraqi No-fly Zones - The Iraqi no-fly zones were a set of two separate no-fly zones (NFZs), and were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom, and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect the Kurds in northern Iraq and Shiite Muslims in the south. Iraqi aircraft were forbidden from flying inside the zones.
 
The policy was enforced by U.S., UK, and French aircraft patrols until France withdrew in 1998. While the enforcing powers had cited United Nations Security Council Resolution 688 as authorizing the operations, the resolution actually contains no explicit authorization.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
British Forces In Northern Iraq - ‘Operation Haven’ also known as Operation Provide Comfort and Provide Comfort II were military operations by the United States, initiated by the United Kingdom and included some of her other Gulf War allies, starting in April 1991, to defend Kurds fleeing their homes in northern Iraq in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War and deliver humanitarian aid to them.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.