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17/11/2019 05:40am

Khedive’s Sudan Medal 1910

Conflict
 
General Service In The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1910 - 1922.
 
Further relevant historical context can be found at the foot of this entry.
 
History
 
The Khedive's Sudan Medal was a British Empire campaign medal presented to those who participated in operations in the Egyptian Sudan for which no other separate medal was intended. The medal was instituted in 1911 and was awarded by the Khedivate of Egypt for service in Egyptian Sudan between 1910 and 1921 for operations as defined by clasps worn on the medal ribbon.
 
This medal replaced the Khedive's Sudan Medal 1897.
 
Description
 
The medal is circular, 36mm in diameter and was struck in either silver or bronze. There were two versions of the obverse, one from 1910 to 1916 which bears the Arabic cypher of the Khedive Abba Hilmi the Mohammedan year of its establishment; ‘1328’ (1910) and one from 1916 onwards which bears the Arabic cypher of the Khedive Hussain Kamil and the Mohammedan year of its establishment; ‘1335’ (1916).
 
The reverse depicts a lion standing on a plinth with the inscription; 'SUDAN'.
 
The ribbon suspender is of the plain, straight and swivelling style riveted to the medal.
 
The medal was issued un-named but on some of the second type that were issued, the recipient's details can be found on the medal's rim impressed in sans serif capitals.
 
Ribbon
 
 
The ribbon is 32mm wide and is black in colour with a narrow green and red stripe along either edge.
 
Bars/Clasps
 
This medal was issued with the following clasps:-
 
Atwot
Awarded for service during the expeditions against the Atwot Dinkas, between 9 February and 17 February 1910, and a further expedition into the Aliab District of the Mongalla Province under the command of El Kiamkakam Harvey Bey, between 29 March and 4 April 1910.
Southern Kordofan-1910
Awarded for service during the two expeditions into the Kordofan District.
The first under the command of El Lewa Asser Pasha, between 10-19 November 1910, which operated in the Eastern Gebels district, and the second, under the command by El Kaimakam Conry Bey DSO, between 27 November and 19 December 1910 which operated in the Katla Hills district.
Sudan 1912
Awarded to 13 British Officers seconded to the Egyptian Army along with 21 native officers who undertook operations under the command of Major Leveson DSO, against Adonga Anuak, between 12 October 1911 and 12 April 1912.
Mandal
Awarded for service during operations under the command of Captain Romilly DSO, between 1 March and 10 April 1914, against the Nubus for continued cattle thieving
Miri
Awarded for service during pre-emptive reinforcement of the district Headquarters at Kadugli, between 13 April 1915 and 12 June 1916, in anticipation of an attack by Fiki Ali Almi and his followers.
Almi was subsequently captured and sentence to death, but later pardoned and sent into exile in return for a peaceful settlement.
Zeraf 1913-1914
Awarded for service during operations in the Zeraf Valley under the command of Captain D.A. Fairbairn against the Gawaar Nuer, between 18 December 1913 and 20 February 1914, with the objective of dispersing them.
Mongalla 1915-16
Awarded for service during operations under the command of Major D.C. Percy Smith DSO - who was later joined by Captain Hobbs.
The operations took place in the Imatongs and Lafite Mountains, between 1 January 1915 and 14 March 1916.
Darfur 1916
Awarded for service during operations under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel P.J.V Kelly, between 1 March and 31 December 1916, against the Emir Ali Dinar.
Dinar, following the Battle of Omdurman, had previously given allegiance to the Government in return for retaining control of the Sultanate of Durfur.
Subsequently, he secretly proclaimed himself the new Islamic saviour and planned to invade Kordofan in the hope of rallying Moslem tribes and then conquering the remaining Sudan.
However, his plans were discovered and Kelly was ordered to undertake a pre-emptive invasion of Darfur.
In the campaign that followed, Ali Dinar’s forces were defeated in a number of engagements including the Battle of Beringia 22 May 1916, and the uprising was finally quashed and Dinar’s power was broken - he was murdered the following year while on the run from the British.
This campaign is noted for its excellent logistical planning and execution.
Fasher
Awarded for service during operations west of Abiad, between 15-23 May 1916.
Those involved in this operation were also involved in the actions that resulted in the issue of the Durfur 1916 clasp - therefore this clasp is never found issued alone.
Lau-Nuer
Awarded for service in operations under the command of Major E.A.T Bayly DSO, against the Lau Nuer in the Bor district of Mongolla, in reprisal for the Lau Nuers participation in raids against the Dinkas and the killing of a British officer and 8 Sudenese infantrymen in an earlier encounter.
Operations took place during March, April and May 1917 and later resulted in the establishment of an outpost at Nyerolunder the command of Captain C.C. Goodwin, after which, the Lau Neur capitulated.
Nyima 1917-1918
Awarded for service in operations under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel L.K. Smith DSO, between 5 April 1917 and 21 February 1918, against Chief Agabria of the Nubus - who lived in the Nyima Hills. These operations were in reprisal for the Nubusundertaking raids and causing other disturbances.
At the end of the operation some 4000 prisoners had been taken, along with their leader - who was later tried and hanged.
Atwot 1918
Awarded for service in operations against the Atwot Dinkas led by Malwai Matiang, between 13 March and 25 May 1918 after they had risen in rebellion.
Operations ceased when Matiang surrendered.
The addition of the ‘1918’ date to this clasp was to ensure that there was no confusion between this operation and the earlier one in the same area in 1910.
Aliab Dinka
Awarded for service in operations against the Aliab Dinka, Bor Dinka and the Mandari tribes after they rebelled and attacked the outpost at Menkamon.
Operations between 8 November 1919 and 6 May 1920 included the dispatch of two separate columns, one under the command of Major R.F. White, and a second under the command of Major F.C. Roberts VC, DSO, MC.
The second column - after a surprise attack by the Dinka, which resulted in the loss of three officers - was forced to retreat to Tombe.
A further column despatched in March 1920, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel R.H. Darwell DSO, gradually cleared the area of rebels.
Garjak Nuer
Awarded to all those who participated in operations  against the Garjak Neur who lived in the Eastern Nuer District, in reprisal for raids that they undertook against their neighbours the Burun.
Operations included a number of  patrols undertaken from the outpost at Jonguls, between 13-16 May 1919, and two columns dispatched to stop the raids spreading towards the lands of the Lau Neur, under the separate commands of Major C.R.K. Bacon OBE and Major G.C. Cobden, between 16 January and 26 April 1920.
Nyala
This clasp comes before the ‘Darpur 1921’ clasp but the period of the service ended much later.
It was awarded for service in operations between 26 September 1921 and 20 January 1922, against FikiAbdullabi El Suheina - a self-proclaimed Prophet - and his followers a force of 5000 men.
In September 1921 they attacked the district Headquarters in Nyala. The headquarters were defended by a small force which managed to hold off the attack, during which Fiki Abdullabi El Suheina was killed.
However, the uprising continued for several more months until a column under the command of Major S.T. Grigg DSO, MC, arrived and operated in the area until January 1922 - quelling the remaining unrest.
Darpur 1921
Awarded for service in operations at or west of Kerenik against Fiki Abdullabi El Suheina and his followers, between 26 September and 22 November 1921 and did not qualify for 'Nyala' clasp mentioned above.
 
Further relevant historical context can be found at the foot of this entry.
 
Dealer Retail Value *
 
Khedive’s Medal 1st type silver issue no clasp
£225.00
Khedive’s Medal 2st type silver issue no clasp
£190.00
Khedive’s Medal 1st type bronze issue no clasp
£425.00
Khedive’s Medal 2nd type bronze issue no clasp
£275.00
Khedive’s Medal with 1 clasp from
£295.00
Khedive’s Medal with 2 clasps from
£395.00
For valuations for medals with specific clasps, or, 1 or more clasps please ‘contact us’. **
 
* It should be noted that the values quoted above reflect the average price that a medal dealer may expect to sell this medal for - please see the ‘things you should know’ web page for more details about valuing medals.
 
** Due to the large number of clasps available for this medal, the value for medals which contains certain clasps will vary considerably.
 
Further Historical Context
 
This section contains information on:-
 
- Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
- The Darfur Expedition Of 1916.
- The Aliab Dinka Uprising.
- The Dinka People.
- The Nuer People.
- The Nymang People.
 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan - Anglo-Egyptian Sudan referred to the manner by which Sudan was administered between 1899 and 1956, when it was a condominium of Egypt and the United Kingdom.
 
In 1820, the Egyptian wāli Muhammad Ali Pasha army commanded by his son Ismail Pasha invaded and conquered northern Sudan. The region had longstanding linguistic, cultural, religious, and economic ties to Egypt and had been partially under the same government at intermittent periods since the times of the pharaohs. Muhammad Ali was aggressively pursuing a policy of expanding his power with a view to possibly supplanting the Ottoman Empire (to which he technically owed fealty) and saw Sudan as a valuable addition to his Egyptian dominions.
 
During his reign and that of his successors, Egypt and Sudan came to be administered as one political entity, with all ruling members of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty seeking to preserve and extend the '…unity of the Nile Valley'. This policy was expanded and intensified most notably by Muhammad Ali's grandson, Ismail Pasha, under whose reign most of the remainder of modern-day Sudan was conquered.
 
With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt and Sudan's economic and strategic importance increased enormously, attracting the imperial attentions of the Great Powers, particularly the United Kingdom. Ten years later in 1879, the immense foreign debt of Ismail Pasha's government served as the pretext for the Great Powers to force his abdication and replacement by his son Tewfik Pasha.
 
The manner of Tewfik's ascension at the hands of foreign powers greatly angered Egyptian and Sudanese nationalists who resented the ever-increasing influence of European governments and merchants in the affairs of the country.
 
The situation was compounded by Tewfik's perceived corruption and mismanagement and ultimately culminated in the Orabi Revolt. With the survival of his throne in dire jeopardy, Tewfik appealed for British assistance. In 1882, at Tewfik's invitation, the British bombarded Alexandria, Egypt's and Sudan's primary seaport, and subsequently invaded the country.
 
British forces overthrew the Orabi government in Cairo and proceeded to occupy the rest of Egypt and Sudan in 1882. Though officially the authority of Tewfik had been restored, in reality the British largely took control of Egyptian and Sudanese affairs until 1932
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Darfur Expedition Of 1916 - Darfur is a region in western Sudan. It was an independent sultanate for several hundred years, incorporated into Sudan by Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1916. The region is divided into five federal states: Central Darfur, East Darfur, North Darfur, South Darfur and West Darfur.
 
The Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition of 1916, was a military operation by forces from the British Empire and the Sultanate of Egypt, launched as a pre-emptive invasion of the Sultanate of Darfur.
 
The British and Egyptian expedition was undertaken because they believed that the Darfurian leader, Sultan Ali Dinar, was preparing to invade Anglo-Egyptian controlled Sudan.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Aliab Dinka Uprising - In 1919 the Aliab Dinka country lay within the Mongalla Province of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. There was an uprising of the Aliab Dinka that year. 3,000 Dinka men attacked the police post at Mekamon, near Bor, and killed several policemen.
 
Mandari tribesmen in the region to the south attacked at the same time and killed some telegraph linesmen and police. Lieutenant Colonel Richard Finch White took several companies of the Egyptian Army Equatorial Battalion to the area to handle the situation.
 
The Mongalla province Governor Chauncey Hugh Stigand went on patrol himself, and on 8 December 1919 was killed at Pap, between the Lau River and the White Nile.
 
Two other officers and 24 soldiers and porters were speared to death by 1,000 Dinka warriors. The rising was put down harshly in 1920. A force under Colonel Robert Henry Darwall led the punitive expedition, which killed over 400 Dinka, Atwot and Mandari tribesmen, burnt many villages and took about 7,000 cattle.
 
Stigand's successor Vincent Reynolds Woodland wrote that 'The Government has done nothing for the Aliab. It has not protected them from aggression, has given them no economic benefits...it has forced them to do a certain amount of labour, to pay taxes and to endure a not negligible amount of extortion by police'.
 
However, although he removed the Egyptian ma'mur at Minkammon who had triggered the Aliab revolt through his abuses, Woodland did not appoint a replacement. The Aliab Dinka were left with no administration at all.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Dinka People - The Dinka people are an ethnic group inhabiting the Bahr el Ghazal region of the Nile basin, Jonglei and parts of southern Kordufan and Upper Nile regions. They are mainly agripastoral people, relying on cattle herding at riverside camps in the dry season and growing millet (awuou) and other varieties of grains (rap) in fixed settlements during the rainy season.
 
They number around 4.5 million people according to the 2008 Sudan census, constituting about 18% of the population of the entire country, and the largest ethnic tribe in South Sudan. Dinka, or as they refer to themselves, Muonyjang (singular) and jieng (plural), are one of the branches of the River Lake Nilotes (mainly sedentary agripastoral peoples of the Nile Valley and African Great Lakes region who speak Nilotic languages, including the Nuer and Luo).
 
Dinka are sometimes noted for their height. With the Tutsi of Rwanda, they are believed to be the tallest people in Africa. The Dinka people have no centralised political authority, instead comprising many independent but interlinked clans. Certain of those clans traditionally provide ritual chiefs, known as the ‘masters of the fishing spear’ or beny-bith, who provide leadership for the entire people and appear to be at least in part hereditary.
 
Their language called Dinka, is one of the Nilotic languages of the eastern Sudanic language family. The name means 'people' in the Dinka language. It is written using the Latin alphabet with a few additions.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Nuer People - The Nuer people are a Nilotic ethnic group primarily inhabiting the Nile Valley. They are concentrated in South Sudan, with some representatives also found in southwestern Ethiopia. They speak the Nuer language, which belongs to the Nilo-Saharan family.
 
The nature of relations among the various southern Sudanese tribes were greatly affected in the 19th century by the intrusion of Ottomans, Arabs, and eventually the British.
 
Some ethnic groups made their accommodation with the imperial attackers and others did not, in effect pitting one southern ethnic group against another in the context of foreign rule. For example, some sections of the Dinka were more accommodating to British rule than were the Nuer.
 
The Dinka treated the resisting Nuer as hostile, and hostility developed between the two groups as a result of their differing relationships to the British.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.
 
The Nymang People - Before 1917, during the war against the British, the current Sultan Agabna, led the Nymang against the colonial rulers. He lost the fight and was hanged in 1917.
 
At that time the Nuba Mountains were ruled by Kujurs. All Kujurs were ruled by sultans but each hill had self-rule without too much interference from the sultan. In 1954, when Sudan prepared to gain independence, Mekks (chiefs) were appointed for each hill.
 
A Nazir was appointed as the ruler of the Mekks. The Sultan still kept his position, but was without power.
 
This information was taken from ‘Wikipedia’. The original article and details of the authors can be found here. It is reproduced on this web-site under the ‘creative commons’ licence which can be found here.